FOUNDATIONS OF THE EARTH BIBLICAL
The "Earth Pillars" and Foundations is divided into lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and the inner core.
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, [and as] the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.
A slab sinking through the upper mantle and upper-lower mantle, then stalling and pooling at a depth of 930 miles where there’s an extremely stiff or viscous layer. Below that, slabs continue to sink to the core-mantle boundary - Lowell Miyagi, University
We know about the crust under the oceans and continents, the mantle that goes on for 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles), and the iron core. Now, Earth’s got a new layer. By crushing minerals between anvils made of diamonds, researchers have discovered that the top part of the lower mantle contains an incredibly stiff layer of rock. Thefindings were published in Nature Geoscience this week.
Scientists have discovered a layer of liquified molten rock in Earth's mantle that may be responsible for the sliding motions of the planet's massive tectonic plates.
The finding may carry far-reaching implications, from understanding basic geologic functions of the planet to new insights into volcanism and earthquakes.
Psalms 104:5 "[Who] laid the foundations of the earth,
Job 9:6"Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof:
Statistical description of the heterogeneity of earth foundation beds with random layer arrangement
The interior structure of the Earth, similar to the outer, is layered. These layers can be defined by either their chemical or their rheological properties. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of Earth's internal structure is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravity field of the Earth, and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and temperatures characteristic of the Earth's deep interior which is the foundation of earth structure.
The structure of Earth can be defined in two ways: by mechanical properties such as rheology, or chemically. Mechanically, it can be divided into lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and the inner core. The interior of Earth is divided into 5 important layers. Chemically, Earth can be divided into the crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, and inner core. The geologic component layers of Earth is the pillar and foundation of earth structure .
‘for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he hath set the world upon them;’(1 Samuel 2:8)
World English Bible
The earth and all its inhabitants quake. I firmly hold its pillars. Selah.(Psalms 75:3)
EARTH CRUST IS THE FACE OF THE EARTH IT IS THE OUTERMOST SOLID SHELL OF THE EARTH .
And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place,(Acts 17:26)
Geologists in the US say Earth might have a previously undiscovered layer of ultra-strong rock hiding in its mantle, some 1,500 km (930 miles) beneath our feet.
The new layer is up to three times stronger than rocks in the less viscous upper mantle, and could explain why portions of sinking tectonic plates sometimes stall and thicken at this depth - a phenomenon that has for years puzzled geologists.
The finding challenges the existing understanding of Earth's internal structure, and researchers say, if it's true, it might also help explain the occurrence of earthquakes in the deep mantle.
Earth’s main layers include its relatively thin crust, which extends from just below the surface to about 80 km deep. Next there's the mantle, which extends to about 2,900 km deep, followed by its iron core.
“Most layers are defined by the minerals that are present,” said geophysicist Lowell Miyagi from the University of Utah in a press release. "Essentially, we have discovered a new layer in the Earth. This layer isn't defined by the minerals present, but by the strength of these minerals.”
The team’s results, which were published in the journal Nature Geoscience, suggest the new, ultra-stiff rock layer is located somewhere near the the middle of the mantle, and is temporarily trapping subducting plates.
The crust of the Earth is composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The crust is underlain by the mantle. The upper part of the mantle is composed mostly of peridotite, a rock denser than rocks common in the overlying crust. The boundary between the crust and mantle is conventionally placed at the Mohorovičić discontinuity, a boundary defined by a contrast in seismic velocity. The crust occupies less than 1% of Earth's volume.The oceanic crust of the sheet is different from its continental crust. The oceanic crust is 5 km (3 mi) to 10 km (6 mi) thickand is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro. The continental crust is typically from 30 km (20 mi) to 50 km (30 mi) thick and is mostly composed of slightly less dense rocks than those of the oceanic crust. Some of these less dense rocks, such as granite, are common in the continental crust but rare to absent in the oceanic crust. Both the continental and oceanic crust "float" on the mantle. Because the continental crust is thicker, it extends both above and below the oceanic crust. The slightly lighter density of felsic continental rock compared to basaltic ocean rock contributes to the higher relative elevation of the top of the continental crust. Because the top of the continental crust is above that of the oceanic, water runs off the continents and collects above the oceanic crust. The continental crust and the oceanic crust are sometimes called sial and sima respectively. Because of the change in velocity of seismic waves it is believed that on continents at a certain depth sial becomes close in its physical properties to sima, and the dividing line is called the Conrad discontinuity.