Saturday, May 26, 2012


Isaiah 58:1

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Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins.

Hosea 8:1

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Set the trumpet to thy mouth. He shall come as an eagle against the house of the LORD, because they have transgressed my covenant, and trespassed against my law.

Psalms 65:7

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Which stilleth the noise of the seas, the noise of their waves, and the Noise of the people.

A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful. The most common form of loudspeaker uses a paper cone supporting a voice coil electromagnet acting on a permanent magnet, but many other types exist. Where accurate reproduction of sound is required, multiple loudspeakers may be used, each reproducing a part of the audible frequency range. Miniature loudspeakers are found in devices such as radio and TV receivers, and many forms of music players. Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music, sound reinforcement in theatres and concerts, and in public address systems.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012


Revelation 13:18

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Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding COMPUTE the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

Ecclesiastes 10:10

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If the iron be blunt, and he do not whet the edge, then must he put to more strength: but wisdom is profitable to direct.

Job 38:36

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Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given understanding to the heart?

A computer is a general purpose device which can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. The essential point of a computer is to implement an idea, the terms of which are satisfied by Alan Turing's Universal Turing machine.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved.
A computer's processing unit executes a series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditional instructions change the sequence of instructions as a function of the current state of the machine or its environment.
In order to interact with such a machine, programmers and engineers developed the concept of a user interface in order to accept input from humans and return results for human consumption.
The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States. Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications.
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012


[Proverbs 27:17]
Iron sharpeneth iron; so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.

A machine is a tool consisting of one or more parts that is constructed to achieve a particular goal. Machines are powered devices, usually mechanically, chemically, thermally or electrically powered, and are frequently motorized. Historically, a device required moving parts to classify as a machine; however, the advent of electronics technology has led to the development of devices without moving parts that are considered machines.

The word "machine" is derived from the Latin word machina, which in turn derives from the Doric Greek μαχανά (machana), Ionic Greek μηχανή (mechane) "contrivance, machine, engine" and that from μῆχος (mechos), "means, expedient, remedy". The meaning of machine is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to an independently functioning structure and by Merriam-Webster Dictionary to something that has been constructed. This includes human design into the meaning of machine.

A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television and radio.


Proverbs 17:22

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A merry heart doeth good like a medicine: but a broken spirit drieth the bones.

Scientific Studies in Happiness "Research confirms that happy people, who feel mildly or moderately happy most of the time, are not enthralled by acquiring big houses, fast cars, fashionable furnishings, luxury travel, and glittering jewelry. Coversely, injury and adverse circumstances do not nessarily make one unhappy. IN fact, research suggests that most people soon adapt somewhat to changes in their situations (Diener, 200; Myers, 200; Worman & Silver,1991).

Yet, full adaption is not inevitable, and significant changes like permanent disability that removes one from one's meaningful social activity can cause a significant drop in one's sense of wellbeing (Lucas, 2007)
What then characterizes happy individuals, if not wealth, space, and unlimited freedom? It is not age, gender, or inclome, nor traiditonal traits. There are only minor to moderate associations with extroversion (presumably because extroverts are more sensitive to rewards), and agreeable ness (presumably because agreeable people are trusting and altruistic) There is an inverse association with Neuroticism, as neurotics tend to be anxious, cynical, and pessimistic (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998; Mroczek & Spiro, 2005; Watson, 2000) But these traits often do not capture what we mean by "happy" people. Further the matter is complicated by the situations peopel seek out for themselves. FOr general welll-being and life, satisfaction, personality is a predictor of relevent life achievements like job and marital satisfaction, which in turn are often relevant to overall satisfaction. (Heller, Watson & Illies, 2004).

Proverbs 15:13

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A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance: but by sorrow of the heart the spirit is broken.

Interestingly, psychologists studying subjective well-being have often found that the best rationalizers are the most content. People who see things as always working out for the best are happiest. Furthermore, perceived financial situation and perceived control over life affect happiness, and these are not directly related to one's objective circumstances. (Diener, 2000; Johnson & Krueger, 2006; Lyubomirksy, 2001; Mysers, 2000)

Happy individuals are less bothered when their peers do better than they do, whereas unhappy individuals are dissapointed in their peers accompliments, and are relieved by their acquaintances faires. Happy individuals look for information that is "good news" but otherwize don't worry much about how they compare to others. Happy people tend to think about and remember positive events in their lives. Happy people create meaning in their lives by interpreting events in terms of humanistic values of personal growth, meaningful social ties, and giving back to society. Unhappy people tend to dwell on negative happenings and ruminate about their problems and distress. ( Bauer, McAdams, & Sakaeda, 2005; Lyubomirksy, 2001; Lyubomirsky & Ross, 1999; Lyubomirksy, Sousa & Dickerhoof, 2006.)

Happy people do have good relations with an intimate other, a sense of purpose and hope, and work or hobbies they enjoy. THey often help others and have a sense of faith or trust. Yet it is not clear to what extent one can MAKE oneself happy by getting married, or becoming a volunteer, or going to church (Diener, Lucas & Scollon, 2006; McCullough, Bono & Root, 2005)

Classic existentialist-humanistic personality theorists wrestle with the tension between a focus on internal self-concepts verses external environmental contingencies. ONe does not live in a world wholly of one's own creation, but one is not merely a cog in a mechanical world either. People must struggle to make sense of their world, combating anxiety and dread to transcend struggle and strive for self actualization in challenging circumstances.

A similar tension emerges in modern research on happiness Although researchers agree that material possessions do not in themselves bring happiness, there is disagreement on the importance of internal-based rationalizations and environment-based interactions. Some researchers focus outwardly and point happiness seekers towards such environment-based interactions. Some researchers focus outwardly and point happiness seekers toward such environment-based social behaviors as altruism, fidelity, forgiveness and community. But other researchers point towards such internal based rationalizations as remembering positive events, being unbothers by others triumphs, and adapting to one's own situation. For example, in one study about college applications, self-reported happy and unhappy high school seniors evaluated colleges after applying for admission, and then later after making their college choices. Happy students turned out to be more satisfied with all the college vohices they had, and they more sharply devalued the desirable colleges that rejected them, thus maintaining their happiness (Lyubomirksy & Ross, 1999) Happiness in this study, was more a function of internal rationalizations than external encounters. May other studiesl however, show the benefits of altrustic acts, such as behaving kindly towards strangers. Even more, sometimes external acts help shape one's own positive self-image.

Based on the work of David G. Myers (2000), one of the wisest interpreters of research on what makes people happy, and the work of leading researchers like Ed Diener (2000; Diener, Lucas & Scollon, 2006) and Sonja Lyubomirksy (2001), we can derive the following suggestions for pursuing happiness.

1) Help others. As one pays less attention to one's own problems and builds positive, intimate relations with others, one sense of well-being increases.

2) Monitor one's wealth-seeking. Beacuase people soon adapt to newfound wealth, material possessions themselves do not guarantee happiness. Resources that help one to engage in productive or absorbing activities may, however, promote happiness.

3) Avoid television. Being inactive, being unengaged with others, being passive, and limiting one's physical activity all can promote unhappiness.

4) Keep lists or journals of your accomplishments and other things to be grateful for, to remind yourself of the good things in your life. Do this weekly and monthly.

5) Seek spiritual or awe-inspiring experiences in life, especially experiences that fit with your temperament. THese could be religious, nature-based, artistic, scientific, or creative.

6) Set long-term goals and move on quickly after any short-term failures. Recognize and relish the fact that life has many difficult challenges.

7) Recognize that many people have tendences to be relatively unhappy, due to a combination of biology, early experiences, past learning, thoughts, and abilities, and current situations. If you are such a person, don't dwell on it. Like personality, happiness levels can improve, but usually change only very slowly over long periods of time."

Monday, May 21, 2012


1 Kings 2:37

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For it shall be, that on the day thou goest out, and passest over the brook Kidron, thou shalt know for certain that thou shalt surely die: thy blood shall be upon thine own head.

Blood Clots 


A blood clot is a thickened mass in the blood formed by tiny substances called platelets. Clots form to stop bleeding, such as at the site of cut. But clots should not form when blood is moving through the body; when clots form inside blood vessels or when blood has a tendency to clot too much, serious health problems can occur.


As soon as a blood vessel wall is damaged—by a cut or similar trauma—a series of reactions normally takes place to activate platelets to stop the bleeding. Platelets are the tiny particles in the blood released into the bone marrow that gather together and form a barrier to further bleeding. Several proteins in the body are involved in the platelets clotting process. Chief among these proteins are collagen, thrombin, and von Willebrand factor. Collagen and thrombin help platelets stick together. As platelets gather at the site of injury, they change in shape from round to spiny, releasing proteins and other substances that help catch more platelets and clotting proteins. This enlarges the plug that becomes a blood clot. Formation of blood clots also is called "coagulation".
The series of reactions that cause proteins and platelets to create blood clots also are balanced by other reactions that stop the clotting process and dissolve clots after the blood vessel has healed. If this control system fails, minor blood vessel injuries can trigger clotting throughout the body. The tendency to clot too much is called "hypercoagulation". Anytime clots form inside blood vessels, they can lead to serious complications.
The formation of a clot in a blood vessels may be called thrombophlebitis. The term refers to swelling of one or more veins caused by a blood clot. Although some clots occur in the arms or small, surface blood vessels, most occur in the lower legs. When the blood clot occurs in a deep vein, it is called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. As many as one of every 1,000 Americans develops DVT each year. The danger of DVT comes when pieces of the clot, known as emboli, break off and travel through the bloodstream to an artery.
A blood clot that blocks an artery to the brain can cause a stroke. If the clot blocks blood flow to the lungs pulmonary embolism can occur. A blood clot that blocks a coronary artery can cause a heart attack. Certain people are at higher risk for blood clots than others; surgery, some injuries, childbirth and lying or sitting still for extended periods of time put people at higher risk, as do inherited disorders. Once a person has a blood clot, he or she may have to take bloodthinning drugs to prevent clots from recurring. Men and women are at similar risk for blood clots. A recent study in Austria found that men run a higher risk of recurring blood clots than women, though the reason is unknown.


Matthew 4:12

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Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee;

Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564– 8 January 1642),was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science",and "the Father of Modern Science".
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.
Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax.The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.

Saturday, May 19, 2012


Joel 3:21
For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwelleth in Zion.

A blood-borne disease is one that can be spread through contamination by blood.The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers.

Diseases that are not usually transmitted directly by blood contact, but rather by insect or other vector, are more usefully classified as vector-borne disease, even though the causative agent can be found in blood. Vector-borne diseases include West Nile virus and malaria.

Many blood-borne diseases can also be transmitted by other means, including high-risk sexual behavior or intravenous drug use.

Since it is difficult to determine what pathogens any given blood contains, and some blood-borne diseases are lethal, standard medical practice regards all blood (and any body fluid) as potentially infectious. Blood and Body Fluid precautions are a type of infection control practice that seeks to minimize this sort of disease transmission.

Blood poses the greatest threat to health in a laboratory or clinical setting due to needlestick injuries (e.g., lack of proper needle disposal techniques and/or safety syringes).

Blood for blood transfusion is screened for many blood-borne diseases. Additionally, a technique that uses a combination of riboflavin and UV light to inhibit the replication of these pathogens by altering their nucleic acids can be used to treat blood components prior to their transfusion, and can reduce the risk of disease transmission. Technology using the synthetic psoralen, amotosalen HCl, and UVA light (320-400 nm) has been implemented in European blood centers for the treatment of platelet and plasma components to prevent transmission of blood-borne diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa 

In medicine, dialysis (from Greek dialusis, meaning dissolution, dia, meaning through, and lysis, meaning loosening or splitting) is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is used primarily to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function (acute kidney injury, previously acute renal failure), or progressive but chronically worsening kidney function–a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5 (previously chronic renal failure or end-stage kidney disease). The latter form may develop over months or years, but in contrast to acute kidney injury is not usually reversible, and dialysis is regarded as a "holding measure" until a renal transplant can be performed.


[Genesis 2:21-23]
And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.


Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.[John 1:13]

"Born on the will of the flesh or Born in the will of man " is the principles of cloning

Have you ever wished you could have a clone of yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park or went out with your friends?

Imagine if you could really do that. Where would you start?
What exactly is cloning?

Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two!

You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. They weren't made in a lab, though: they're identical twins, created naturally. Below, we'll see how natural identical twins relate to modern cloning technologies.
How is cloning done?

[2 Samuel 19:13] And say you to Amasa, Are you not of my bone, and of my flesh?
You may have first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though.

How does one go about making an exact genetic copy of an organism? There are a couple of ways to do this: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer. How do these processes differ?

1. Artificial Embryo Twinning

Artificial embryo twinning is the relatively low-tech version of cloning. As the name suggests, this technology mimics the natural process of creating identical twins.
In nature, twins occur just after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. In rare cases, when the resulting fertilized egg, called a zygote, tries to divide into a two-celled embryo, the two cells separate. Each cell continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into a separate individual within the mother. Since the two cells came from the same zygote, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

Artificial embryo twinning uses the same approach, but it occurs in a Petri dish instead of in the mother's body. This is accomplished by manually separating a very early embryo into individual cells, and then allowing each cell to divide and develop on its own. The resulting embryos are placed into a surrogate mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. Again, since all the embryos came from the same zygote, they are genetically identical.
2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Somatic cell nuclear transfer, (SCNT) uses a different approach than artificial embryo twinning, but it produces the same result: an exact clone, or genetic copy, of an individual. This was the method used to create Dolly the Sheep.

What does SCNT mean? Let's take it apart:

Somatic cell: A somatic cell is any cell in the body other than the two types of reproductive cells, sperm and egg. Sperm and egg are also called germ cells. In mammals, every somatic cell has two complete sets of chromosomes, whereas the germ cells only have one complete set.

Nuclear: The nucleus is like the cell's brain. It's an enclosed compartment that contains all the information that cells need to form an organism. This information comes in the form of DNA. It's the differences in our DNA that make each of us unique.

Transfer: Moving an object from one place to another.
To make Dolly, researchers isolated a somatic cell from an adult female sheep. Next, they transferred the nucleus from that cell to an egg cell from which the nucleus had been removed. After a couple of chemical tweaks, the egg cell, with its new nucleus, was behaving just like a freshly fertilized zygote. It developed into an embryo, which was implanted into a surrogate mother and carried to term.

The lamb, Dolly, was an exact genetic replica of the adult female sheep that donated the somatic cell nucleus to the egg. She was the first-ever mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell.
How does SCNT differ from the natural way of making an embryo?

The fertilization of an egg by a sperm and the SCNT cloning method both result in the same thing: a dividing ball of cells, called an embryo. So what exactly is the difference between these methods?

An embryo is composed of cells that contain two complete sets of chromosomes. The difference between fertilization and SCNT lies in where those two sets originated.

In fertilization, the sperm and egg both contain one set of chromosomes. When the sperm and egg join, the resulting zygote ends up with two sets - one from the father (sperm) and one from the mother (egg).

In SCNT, the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed. It is replaced by the nucleus from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes. Therefore, in the resulting embryo, both sets of chromosomes come from the somatic cell.


26 He that withholdeth corn, the people shall curse him: but blessing shall be upon the head of him that selleth it.


The Oil-Fired, Grain-Fed Global Food Crisis

In other articles I have made the claim that because of our industrial food system, oil, food and population are inextricably linked. I have also claimed that a contraction in the world oil supply would cause a similar contraction in the world food supply, threatening the human population. This article fleshes out those claims a little more, drawing on some of my recent investigations.

Food Systems

According to Wikipedia, a food system includes all processes and infrastructure involved in feeding a population: the growing, harvesting, processing, packaging, transporting, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items.

Another article gives the percentage of various countries’ total energy consumption that is used by the food system. The estimates range from 10% to 14%. This gives a good starting point for investigating how vulnerable food systems are to oil supply disruptions. Of course, the estimates are for "total energy". The interesting question for our purposes is, what proportion of the energy used in the food system comes from oil?

After thinking about it for a while I’m reasonably confident in saying that about two thirds of the energy used in the average food system likely comes from oil. The reason is that the heavy energy consumption in the food system comes from the mechanization of production and the transportation of raw materials, raw food, finished food products and waste. Natural gas is used for fertilizer and crop drying, but that only consumes a percent or two of the total energy supply. The rest is electricity for lighting, processing the food and some production processes like irrigation. Estimating that two thirds of the energy used comes from oil seems reasonable to me.

So by picking the middle of that 10% to 14% range and multiplying 12% by 2/3, I conclude that 8% of the world’s primary energy supply is used in the global food system as oil. This is not terribly accurate, but I think it’s in the right ballpark.

However, that 8% isn't drawn from the complete pool of primary energy, because it only comes from oil. That means that our 8% comes out of the world's oil supply, not from the total pool of primary energy. The oil supply constitutes only 35% of the world’s primary energy. The necessary arithmetic shows us that the operation of the world’s food supply consumes about 23% of the world’s oil. Almost a quarter of our oil is used to feed us. Or, in Dale Pfeiffer’s language, we eat a quarter of our oil. It seems unbelievable, but there it is.

Global Markets

The problems in global markets with national boundaries are always found at the borders – with imports and exports. Both the oil and food markets are heavily globalized. Over half the world’s oil moves on the international market, as does 13% of all grain (FAO numbers). This difference implies that most countries use the grain they grow for domestic consumption, but that many grain growing nations are dependent on oil imports to run their food systems.

The world oil market currently moves about 2,300 MT of oil per year (45 mbpd). The biggest oil buyers are the USA, Japan, China, Germany, India, South Korea, France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey, Thailand, Poland, South Africa and Greece. Together those fifteen nations buy 75% of the oil on the world market (1,750 MT per year). These imports also constitute 75% of their aggregate oil consumption. With that oil they produce 57% of the world’s grain (again from FAO numbers). Given that they have exactly half the world’s population, that list contains some significant grain exporters, including the Netherlands, France and of course the USA.

The State of the World's Oil Market

There is emerging evidence that we are heading into a decline in net oil exports, which is a way of saying the world market supply of oil has begun to dwindle. The following graphs form the basis for that claim:

First, the evidence that we have hit Peak Oil:

Second, an example of how a country's net exports can go to zero due to a combination of declining production and rising domestic consumption:

Third, evidence that the world as a whole has entered a regime of declining net oil exports, due to the combination of the production plateau and rising global consumption:

The red line projecting the decline in the last graph hints that the world oil market could be empty by 2022 or so. I think this purely mathematical projection is overly pessimistic. I think we will probably have about 25 years before that happens, perhaps around 2035. As the market shrinks, the importing nations will be at the greatest disadvantage. The greater their reliance on imported oil, the worse their problems will be.

The Impact of a Shrinking Oil Market

As the world oil market shrinks, many of the importers’ economic sectors will be affected, including their food systems. The fact that food systems consume a quarter of all oil indicates why it will not be a simple matter to reprioritize consumption from other sectors to ensure that the food supply isn’t threatened. Especially in a free market, those consumers who can afford to pay for oil will get it, whether they are business travelers, recreational travelers, airlines or farmers. Expect higher prices for everything including food, along with world-wide economic and social turbulence.

At some point outright oil shortages will begin to develop, varying in severity between nations and national regions depending on local circumstances. Unfortunately, unlike our past experiences, these shortages will not be temporary. Some will be alleviated by robbing Peter to pay Paul (i.e. by bidding the less fortunate out of the market), but the dynamics of the underlying physical situation will be inexorable. Ultimately governments may have to step in, nationalizing oil supplies and creating command systems to ensure that their use is prioritized for the food systems.

What about the substitution of other forms of energy for oil? There will be a lot of activity in that area – natural gas powered transport vehicles and electrified rail systems are obvious candidates, and the development of electric personal vehicles is an utmost priority. Perhaps we can reorganize our food system to become less oil-dependent, but it’s a BIG food system, and for the last 60 or more years its structure been developed on the assumption of readily available oil, cheap or not. There are aspects of the system, especially in the distribution of both raw and processed food that are now totally dependent on oil.

The Effect on the Food Supply

The fact that we currently need a quarter of our oil for the food system makes any threat to oil imports a threat to life itself. As oil imports decline, food production will go along for the ride. How severe the slide in food production will be depends in large measure on the amount of oil a country produces compared to what it imports. And those 15 countries I named above are right at the top of the risk list. By the time the world oil market has lost half its volume, say in 12 years, they will have lost 40% of their current oil requirements.Unless they make unprecedented changes to their food systems, they stand to lose 25% to 35% of their food supply in the next 12 years. It sounds apocalyptic, but it’s what the numbers show.

The reason for such a drastic loss is embedded in the following graph:

On average, our existing world food system yields 0.6 tonnes of grain for every tonne of oil we consume. This is the average across all grain producing nations (which vary significantly from one to the next), but it has held true for the last 45 years.

One reason for this consistency is that the rate of industrialization over that time has affected all oil-using sectors of the economy pretty well equally. Since 1965 the world population has grown 1.8x, oil consumption has grown 1.8x, the amount of oil used in cars has grown about 2.5x and grain production has grown 2.1x. World GDP in constant dollars has climbed 3.3x over that period, which gives evidence of both the improved energy intensity and increased human efficiency of economic activity (as well as the possibility that more non-productive activities are being factored into GDP calculations).

This consistency implies that unless the system changes, to shift resource allocations or change the way things are done, we should expect that food/oil ratio of approximately 0.6 to hold true in a declining oil supply as it did in a growing one. The loss of 1 billion tonnes of oil a year (about half the current oil market flow) could result in the loss of 600 million tonnes of grain per year, give or take - a full quarter of the world's food supply.

Do we have enough time to make the changes we need? If my scenario is even close to being valid, we may have just five years left before food price spikes and shortages become a world-wide epidemic. By then the decline in the oil market will be accelerating, and it will become progressively harder to offset the ongoing loss of oil. It would be a good idea if we knew within the next five years exactly how we need to reorganize our food systems, and to have made some serious progress towards that goal.


Job 36:33

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The noise thereof sheweth concerning it, the cattle also concerning the vapour.

Job 37:8-9

Can Animals Predict when Bad Weather Is Coming?

Evidence suggests that animals can predict when bad weather is coming. There are numerous examples of animals changing their behavior, hiding, or otherwise showing signs that they know when unpleasant weather is about to come through. This ability largely comes from an innate instinct in animals. Of course, whether the groundhog seeing his shadow can really foretell more Winter may not be quite as true, however.
Animals change their behavior for many reasons, and bad weather is one of them.  No one is sure as to how they know, but they do. Two things that may clue animals is a lowering of barometric pressure and a rise in humidity. Even humans notice these slight changes. Another thing animals notice is vibrations in the ground from thunderstorms, earthquakes, or tsunamis. Animals hear and see better than us, so they may get clues to changing weather in that way.

How we know Animals Predict Bad Weather

Speaking of tsunamis, when a devastating tsunami hit Southern Asia, the number of animals lost was very low. It’s surprising because the flood waters reached two miles inland. It is theorized that the animals either heard the wave coming or felt the vibrations in the ground.
While we can't ask the animals if they knew the tsunami was coming or if they can predict other bad weather, there are some examples of animal behavior that clearly show that animals can predict when bad weather is coming:
  • Dogs and cats act more frisky or nervous.
  • Cats tend to clean behind their ears before a storm.
  • Frogs will croak louder and for a longer time.
  • Bees and butterflies seem to disappear.
  • Dolphins come into bays to find shelter.
  • Seagulls stop flying and find shelter on the coast.
  • Birds fly lower to the ground and gather on tree limbs or power lines.
  • Ants build up their mounds to have steep sides.
  • Spiders leave their webs.
  • Cows lay down in the field to have a dry spot to lie in.
  • Humans have joint pain or stuffy noses.

Weather Lore

People have always tried to predict the weather, not only to know when to water crops, but to protect themselves and their possessions. Since humans noticed that the animals’ behavior changes before a storm, there is much weather lore pertaining to animals. A lot of the folk lore about weather says that animals can predict bad weather. Here are some examples with the reasons why they are often true:
  • “If birds fly low, expect rain and a blow.” A drop in air pressure causes discomfort in bird’s ears.
  • “If the rooster crows on going to bed, you may rise with a watery head.”  Roosters crow late in the day before bad weather is approaching.
  • “When pigs carry sticks, the clouds will play tricks. When they lie in the mud, no fears of a flood.” Pigs squeal more and gather sticks to make a nest before a storm hits.


Job 39:13-14

In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain of course microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside. Incubators are essential for a lot of experimental work in cell biology, microbiology and molecular biology and are used to culture both bacterial as well as eukaryotic cells.
Incubators are also used in the poultry industry to act as a substitute for hens. This often results in higher hatch rates due to the ability to control both temperature and humidity. Various brands of incubators are commercially available to breeders.
The simplest incubators are insulated boxes with an adjustable heater, typically going up to 60 to 65 °C (140 to 150 °F), though some can go slightly higher (generally to no more than 100 °C). The most commonly used temperature both for bacteria such as the frequently used E. coli as well as for mammalian cells is approximately 37 °C, as these organisms grow well under such conditions. For other organisms used in biological experiments, such as the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a growth temperature of 30 °C is optimal.
More elaborate incubators can also include the ability to lower the temperature (via refrigeration), or the ability to control humidity or CO2 levels. This is important in the cultivation of mammalian cells, where the relative humidity is typically >95% and a slightly acidic pH is achieved by maintaining a CO2 level of 5%.
Most incubators include a timer; some can also be programmed to cycle through different temperatures, humidity levels, etc. Incubators can vary in size from tabletop to units the size of small rooms.
There are many other ways to create an incubator. The renowned scientist Louis Pasteur used the small opening underneath his staircase as an incubator.
The maximum temperature for sterilization is 200oC .


Song of Solomon 8:8-10

A breast implant is a medical prosthesis used to augment, reconstruct, or create the physical form of breasts. Applications include correcting the size, form, and feel of a woman’s breasts in post–mastectomy breast reconstruction; for correcting congenital defects and deformities of the chest wall; for aesthetic breast augmentation; and for creating breasts in the male-to-female transsexual patient.
There are three general types of breast implant device, defined by the filler material: saline, silicone, and composite. The saline implant has an elastomersilicone shell filled with sterile saline solution; the silicone implant has an elastomer silicone shell filled with viscous silicone gel; and the alternative composition implants featured miscellaneous fillers, such as soy oil, polypropylene string, et cetera. In surgical practice, for the reconstruction of a breast, the tissue expander device is a temporary breast prosthesis used to form and establish an implant pocket for the permanent breast implant. For the correction of male breast and chest-wall defects and deformities, the pectoral implant is the breast prosthesis used for the reconstruction and the aesthetic repair of a man’s chest.


Deuteronomy 11:21

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Deuteronomy 11:21

That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the earth.

Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun in our Solar System. It has a long daytime (which lasts 58.65 Earth days or almost an entire Mercurian year, which is 88 days long)

Venus rotates VERY slowly. Each day on Venus takes 243 Earth days. A year on Venus takes 224.7 Earth days. It takes 224.7 Earth days for Venus to orbit the sun once. The same side of Venus always faces Earth when the Earth and Venus are closest together.

Each day on Earth takes 23.93 hours (that is, it takes the Earth 23.93 hours to rotate around its axis once - this is a sidereal day). Each year on Earth takes 365.26 Earth days (that is, it takes the Earth 365.26 days to orbit the Sun once).
The Earth's rotation is slowing down very slightly over time, about one second every 10 years.

Each day on Mars takes 1.03 Earth days (24.6 hours). A year on Mars takes 687 Earth days; it takes this long for Mars to orbit the sun once.

It takes Jupiter 9.8 Earth hours to revolve around its axis (this is a Jovian day). It takes 11.86 Earth years for Jupiter to orbit the sun once (this is a Jovian year).

Each day on Saturn takes 10.2 Earth hours. A year on Saturn takes 29.46 Earth years; it takes 29.46 Earth years for Saturn to orbit the sun once.

Each day on Uranus takes 17.9 Earth hours. A year on Uranus takes 84.07 Earth years; it takes 84.07 Earth years for Uranus to orbit the sun once.

Each day on Neptune takes 19.1 Earth hours. A year on Neptune takes 164.8 Earth years; it takes almost 165 Earth years for Neptune to orbit the sun once.

Each day on Pluto takes 6.39 Earth days. Each year on Pluto takes 247.7 Earth years (that is, it takes 247.7 Earth years for Pluto to orbit the Sun once).


Isaiah 11:6-8

A relationship when one organism either directly or indirectly assists another is a symbiotic relationship - symbiosis. An example of this would be the birds that sit on the backs of larger animals....

  • What is a relationship where animals of different species help each other?
    Mutualistic symbiosis.
  • Do the animals help each other out?
    If one animal eats plants and the other eats meat than the animal that eats meat will eat the other animal that doesn't eat meat. If they are both the same kind the they will probably help each other...
  • Why animals help each other?
    to save each other
  • Relationship where animals of different species help each other?

  • Friday, May 18, 2012


    Revelation 6:13

    Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Revelation 6:13

    And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.

    Large bombardments of meteorites approximately four billion years ago could have helped to make the early Earth and Mars more habitable for life by modifying their atmospheres, suggests the results of a paper published today in the journal Geochimica et Cosmochima Acta.
    When a meteorite enters a planet’s atmosphere, extreme heat causes some of the minerals and organic matter on its outer crust to be released as water and carbon dioxide before it breaks up and hits the ground.
    Researchers suggest the delivery of this water could have made Earth’s and Mars’ atmospheres wetter. The release of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide could have trapped more energy from sunlight to make Earth and Mars warm enough to sustain liquid oceans.

    A fragment of the Murchison meteorite was analysed by researchers
    In the new study, researchers from Imperial College London analysed the remaining mineral and organic content of fifteen fragments of ancient meteorites that had crashed around the world to see how much water vapour and carbon dioxide they would release when subjected to very high temperatures like those that they would experience upon entering the Earth’s atmosphere.
    The researchers used a new technique called pyrolysis-FTIR, which uses electricity to rapidly heat the fragments at a rate of 20,000 degrees Celsius per second, and they then measured the gases released.
    They found that on average, each meteorite was capable of releasing up to 12 percent of its mass as water vapour and 6 percent of its mass as carbon dioxide when entering an atmosphere. They concluded that contributions from individual meteorites were small and were unlikely to have a significant impact on the atmospheres of planets on their own.
    The researchers then analysed data from an ancient meteorite shower called the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), which occurred 4 billion years ago, where millions of rocks crashed to Earth and Mars over a period of 20 million years.
    Using published models of meteoritic impact rates during the LHB, the researchers calculated that 10 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide and 10 billion tonnes of water vapour could have been delivered to the atmospheres of Earth and Mars each year.
    This suggests that the LHB could have delivered enough carbon dioxide and water vapour to turn the atmospheres of the two planets into warmer and wetter environments that were more habitable for life, say the researchers.
    Professor Mark Sephton, from Imperial’s Department of Earth Science and Engineering believes the study provides important clues about Earth’s ancient past:
    “For a long time, scientists have been trying to understand why Earth is so water rich compared to other planets in our solar system. The LHB may provide a clue. This may have been a pivotal moment in our early history where Earth’s gaseous envelope finally had enough of the right ingredients to nurture life on our planet.”
    Lead- author of the study, Dr Richard Court from Imperial’s Department of Earth Science and Engineering, adds:
    “Because of their chemistry, ancient meteorites have been suggested as a way of furnishing the early Earth with its liquid water. Now we have data that reveals just how much water and carbon dioxide was directly injected into the atmosphere by meteorites. These gases could have got to work immediately, boosting the water cycle and warming the planet.”
    However, researchers say Mars’ good fortune did not last. Unlike Earth, Mars doesn’t have a magnetic field to act as a protective shield from the Sun’s solar wind. As a consequence, Mars was stripped of most of its atmosphere. A reduction in volcanic activity also cooled the planet. This caused its liquid oceans to retreat to the poles where they became ice.


    [2 Chronicles 26:15]
    And he made in Jerusalem engines, invented by cunning men, to be on the towers and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones withal. And his name spread far abroad; for he was marvellously helped, till he was strong.

    The People of God is the First inventors of ENGINES

    An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion.Heat engines, including internal combustion enginesand external combustion engines (such as steam engines) burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to create motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air and others, such as wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors like myosins in muscles use chemical energy to create motion.

    Thursday, May 17, 2012


    Ecclesiastes 12:5

    Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Ecclesiastes 12:5

    Also when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the streets:

    List of road accidents records serious road accidents: those that have a large death toll, occurred in unusual circumstances, or have some other historical significance. For crashes that killed famous people, refer to List of people who died in road accidents. The prevalence of bus accidents in this list is a function of severity rather than of frequency.

    Notable historic road accidents
    See also — External links — References