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Friday, March 30, 2012

GROUND WATER


 (A Psalm of David.) The earth [is] the LORD'S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. For he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.(Psalms 24:1-2)


What is groundwater?

Groundwater is water that comes from the ground. Sounds easy, doesn't it? Amazingly, many people use groundwater but don't even know it. In fact, half of everyone in the United States drinks groundwater everyday! Groundwater is even used to irrigate crops which grow food for tonight's dinner.

Where does groundwater come from? Groundwater comes from rain, snow, sleet, and hail that soaks into the ground. The water moves down into the ground because of gravity, passing between particles of soil, sand, gravel, or rock until it reaches a depth where the ground is filled, or saturated, with water. The area that is filled with water is called the saturated zone and the top of this zone is called the water table. Makes sense, doesn't it? The top of the water is a table! The water table may be very near the ground's surface or it may be hundreds of feet below.

Think about this: have you ever dug a hole in sand next to an ocean or lake? What happens? As you're digging, you eventually reach water, right? That water is groundwater. The water in lakes, rivers, or oceans is called surface water...it's on the surface. Groundwater and surface water sometimes trade places. Groundwater can move through the ground and into a lake or stream. Water in a lake can soak down into the ground and become groundwater.
groundwater well illustration
Groundwater is stored in the ground in materials like gravel or sand. It's kind of like the earth is a big sponge holding all that water. Water can also move through rock formations like sandstone or through cracks in rocks. 

An area that holds a lot of water, which can be pumped up with a well, is called an aquifer. Wells pump groundwater from the aquifer and then pipes deliver the water to cities, houses in the country, or to crops.

Most groundwater is clean, but groundwater can become polluted, or contaminated. It can become polluted from leaky underground tanks that store gasoline, leaky landfills, or when people apply too much fertilizer or pesticides on their fields or lawns. When pollutants leak, spill, or are carelessly dumped on the ground they can move through the soil. 

Because it is deep in the ground, groundwater pollution is generally difficult and expensive to clean up. Sometimes people have to find new places to dig a well because their own became contaminated.

WORM LIKE HUMAN (BIBLICAL)




SPERM CELL:"is like  a Worm "

Job 25:6

How much less man, [that is] a worm? and the son of man, [which is] a worm?

  Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese?Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews.Thou hast granted me life and favour, and thy visitation hath preserved my spirit.(Job 10:10-12)



 

The predictable swimming sperm featured in health class videos are rather uncharacteristic portraits of the life of these WORM LIKE sex cells.



Spermatozoa actually spend most of their time resting up in the male reproductive tract so they can make a dash to the egg once the opportunity arises. It has long been known that the little swimmers get their cue to start moving from a big change in pH levels, but a new study explains just how that shift occurs: a specific molecule in the sperm cells’ tails releases protons when the time is right. 

"The concentration of protons is extremely high at all times while the sperm are in the male reproductive tract, which makes the intracellular sperm environment acidic and inhibits the activity of the sperm cell," Yuriy Kirichok, of the University of California, San Francisco, said in a prepared statement. So releasing many of those protons from inside of the sperm cells lowers the internal acidity, a cue to the sperm cells to start flipping their flagella. 

But how does that proton release happen? Previously, researchers had been unsure because they were not able to measure the membrane conductance on human sperm. But by using a whole-cell patch-clamp method to measure electrophysiological changes, Kirichok and his team were able to pinpoint the specific molecule—called Hv1—that opens up proton channels on the sperm cell membranes to release the extra protons. "The Hv1 channel, when opened, can allow protons to exit, and activates a cascade of biochemical reactions that cause the spermatozoa to move, mature and prepare to fertilize the egg," said Kirichok. This channel is signaled by increased pH and decreased zinc—both relative characteristics of the female reproductive tract compared to that of the male. 

Another change in the environment that seems to spur on the sperm is an endocannabinoid that is common in both male and female reproductive tracts. The role of the endocannabinoid system also raises questions about the reported link between marijuana, which activates cannabinoid receptors, and male infertility. "Marijuana likely activates sperm prematurely, leaving them burnt out in a matter of hours," said Kirichok, who is a co-author of the new study, published online February 4 in the journal Cell.

A better understanding of sperm cells’ swimming tactics might open the door to different methods of contraception. "You can imagine now that we know the molecule responsible we could block it to prevent activation and fertilization," Kirichok noted. Conversely, those spermatozoa needing a boost might some day get a little help with their Hv1 channels.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

DARK MATTER


Psalm 138:12

Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition (DRA)
12But darkness shall not be dark to thee, and night shall be light as day: the darkness thereof, and the light thereof are alike to thee.Job 38:9

 Job 38:9
When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,

Psalms 18:11 "He made darkness his secret place;

What Is Dark Matter?

Abell 2744: Pandora's Cluster Revealed
Abell 2744: Pandora's Cluster Revealed
One of the most complicated and dramatic collisions between galaxy clusters ever seen is captured in this new composite image of Abell 2744. The blue shows a map of the total mass concentration (mostly dark matter).By fitting a theoretical model of the composition of the Universe to the combined set of cosmological observations, scientists have come up with the composition that we described above, ~70% dark energy, ~25% dark matter, ~5% normal matter. What is dark matter? 

We are much more certain what dark matter is not than we are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that it is not in the form of stars and planets that we see. Observations show that there is far too little visible matter in the Universe to make up the 25% required by the observations. Second, it is not in the form of dark clouds of normal matter, matter made up of particles called baryons. We know this because we would be able to detect baryonic clouds by their absorption of radiation passing through them. Third, dark matter is not antimatter, because we do not see the unique gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter. Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes on the basis of how many gravitational lenses we see. High concentrations of matter bend light passing near them from objects further away, but we do not see enough lensing events to suggest that such objects to make up the required 25% dark matter contribution.

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

LIMBO




(Late Latin limbus) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as of a garment, or anything joined on (cf. Italian lembo or English limb). 

In theological usage the name is applied to (a) the temporary place or state of the souls of the just who, although purified from sin, were excluded from the beatific vision until Christ's triumphant ascension into Heaven (the "limbus patrum"); or (b) to the permanent place or state of those unbaptized children and others who, dying without grievous personal sin, are excluded from the beatific vision on account of original sin alone (the "limbus infantium" or "puerorum"). 




Pope Benedict XVI authorized publication of this document, indicating that it is considered consonant with the Church's teaching, though it is not an official expression of that teaching.[28] Media reports that by the document "the Pope closed Limbo"[29] are thus without foundation. In fact, the document explicitly states that "the theory of limbo, understood as a state which includes the souls of infants who die subject to original sin and without baptism, and who, therefore, neither merit the beatific vision, nor yet are subjected to any punishment, because they are not guilty of any personal sin. This theory, elaborated by theologians beginning in the Middle Ages, never entered into the dogmatic definitions of the Magisterium, even if that same Magisterium did at times mention the theory in its ordinary teaching up until the Second Vatican Council. It remains therefore a possible theological hypothesis" (second preliminary paragraph); and in paragraph 41 it repeats that the theory of Limbo "remains a possible theological opinion". The document thus allows the hypothesis of a limbo of infants to be held as one of the existing theories about the fate of children who die without being baptised, a question on which there is "no explicit answer" from Scripture or tradition.[28] These theories are not official teaching of the Catholic Church, but are only opinions that the Church does not condemn, permitting them to be held by its members.
Some traditionalist Catholics have seen publication of the Commission's study as a move "to overturn and spread confusion in the most fundamental doctrines of the Faith so as to promote the damnation of souls".[30]



19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are [these]; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

20Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

21 Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told [you] in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.(Gal.5:20-21)

Monday, March 26, 2012

SI FELIX Y MANALO BA ANG KINATUPARAN NG APOC.7





Pagkatapos nito, may nakita naman akong apat na anghel na nakatayo sa apat na sulok ng daigdig. Pinipigil nila ang apat na hangin upang huwag munang umihip sa lupa, sa dagat o sa alinmang punongkahoy.

AYON SA PALIWANAG NG MGA KULTO NI MANALO ANG APAT DAW NA ANGHEL NA NAKATAYO SA APAT NA SULOK NG LUPA NA PUMIPIGIL SA APAT NA HANGIN NG LUPA AY ANG "BIG 4" NA KUNG SAAN PINIPIGILAN DAW NG BIG 4 ANG APAT NA HANGIN NA HUWAG UMIHIP SA LUPA 

AT AYON SA KANILA ANG APAT DAW NA HANGIN AY ANG GERA ITO DAW ANG GERA NA PANG BOUNG SANLIBUTAN ...

NGAYON ALAMIN NATIN KUNG TUMPAK ANG UNAWA NG MGA CULTO NI MANALO SA KAHULUGAN NG APOCALIPSES 7 ?TOTOO BA NA BIG 4 ANG APAT NA ANGHEL NA PUMIPIGIL SA APAT NA HANGIN NG LUPA .AT TOTOO BA GERA NA PANG BOUNG SANLIBUTAN ANG APAT NA HANGIN NA PINIPIGIL NG APAT NA ANGHEL.




ITO ANG TINATAWAG NA BIG 4 (KUHA ANG PHOTO NA ITO NUONG 1919 sa Paris )TApus na ang Gera.

WOODROW WILSON NG AMERICA

DAVID LLOYD GEORGE NG BRITANYA

GEORGE CLEMENCEAU NG FRANCE

VITTORIO ORLANDO NG ITALYA


NAPANSIN BA NINYO LAHAT NG KASAPI SA BIG 4 YONG ISA TAGA AMERICA AT TATLONG KASAPI AY MGA EUROPEO DI MAN LANG NABANGGIT SI MANALO NA MAY INAMBAG SIYA SA PEACE CONFERENCE NA YAN .

The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powersfollowing the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. The defeated Central Powers' colonial empires in Africa, southwest Asia, and the Pacific, would be parceled between and mandated to the victorious colonial empires, based on the different levels of previous development and the creation of the League of Nations.

At the center of the proceedings were the leaders of the four "Great Powers": President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, George Clemenceau of France, and, of least importance, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando; Orlando eventually had pulled out of the conference and did not play a role in constructing the final draft of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany and Communist Russia were not invited to attend, but numerous other nations did send delegations, each with a different agenda. Kings, prime ministers and foreign ministers with their crowds of advisers rubbed shoulders with journalists and lobbyists for a hundred causes, ranging from independence for the countries of the South Caucasus to racial equality


MALI KUNG GANON NA 1914 ITO NAGANAP KASI NG IPANGARAL NI MANALO ANG KANYANG IGLESIA NAGANAP ITO NUONG 1914 ...KUNG APAT NA ANGHEL AY BIG 4 (LUMITAW ANG BIG 4 PAPATAPUS NA ANG GERA AT WALANG KINALAMAN ANG BIG 4 PARA PIGILAN ANG GERA KAYA NAGKAROON NG BIG 4 KASI TAPUS NA ANG GERA AT MAY NATALO NA SA GERA .NGAYON HINDI UMAYON SA HULA ANG UNAWA NG MGA CULTO NI MANALO .. KASI KUNG GERA ANG APAT NA HANGIN ...TANDAAN NATIN .PINIPIGILAN NG APAT NA ANG ANGHEL ANG APAT NA HANGIN ..KUNG ANG KAHULUGAN NG APAT NA HANGIN AY GERA AT ANG APAT NA ANGHEL AY BIG 4 LALABAS NA WALA PANG GERA NA NAGANAP KASI PAANO MAGKA-GERA KUNG PINIPIGILAN PA ITO NG APAT NA ANGHEL.


PANSININ NATIN NASA KAPANGYARIHAN NG APAT NA ANGHEL ANG PAGPIGIL SA APAT NA HANGIN UPANG HUWAG ITO UMIHIP SA LUPA DAGAT AT MGA PUNONG KAHOY ...AT PANGALAWA HINDI BIG 4 ANG PASIMUNO NG GERA....KAWAWANG BIG 4 ..DINAMAY NG MGA CULTO NI MANALO SA KANILANG KASINUNGALINGAN 


KUNG BIG 4 ANG PUMIPIGIL SA APAT NA HANGIN NA AYON SA KAY MANALO GERA LALABAS NA BIG 4 ANG PASIMUNO NG GERA NUONG 1914..KASI KUNG HINDI NA PIPIGILIN NG APAT NA ANGHEL ANG APAT NA HANGIN AY MAGKAKA GERA NA .


PANSININ NATIN NA BINIGYAN NG DIOS ANG APAT NA ANGHEL NG KAPANGYARIHAN NA MAMINSALA SA LUPA AT DAGAT KUNG BIG 4 ANG APAT NA ANGHEL LALABAS NA BIG 4 ANG UTAK NG PINSALA NA MAGAGANAP SA LUPA AT DAGAT .

EH LUMITAW ANG BIG 4 TAPUS NA ANG GERA ...AT KAYA NAGKA BIG 4 PARA PAG USAPAN ANG KAPAYAPAAN SA MGA NATALO AT NANALONG MGA BANSA SA GERA.

At nakita kong umaakyat sa gawing silangan ang isa pang anghel, taglay ang pantatak ng Diyos na buhay. Sumigaw siya sa apat na anghel na binigyan ng Diyos ng kapangyarihang maminsala sa lupa at sa dagat,

NGAYON PANSININ NATIN MAY NAKITA SI SAN JUAN NA ISANG ANGHEL NA UMAAKYAT SA GAWING SILANGAN NA MAY TAGLAY NA PANTATAK NG DIOS NA BUHAY NA SUMISIGAW SA APAT NA ANGHEL NA BINIGYAN NG DIOS NG KAPANGYARIHAN NA MAMINSALA SA LUPA AT SA DAGAT 

AYON SA PALIWANAG NG MGA KULTO NI MANALO ITO DAW ANG ANGHEL NA UMAAKYAT SA GAWING SILANGAN AY ANG SUGO NILA NA SI FELIX Y MANALO SIYA DAW ANG ANGHEL NA BINABANGGIT AT ANG GAWING SILANGAN DAW AY ANG MALAYONG SILANGAN YAN DAW ANG PILIPINAS 

NGAYON PANSININ NATIN ITONG ANGHEL SA GAWING SILANGAN AY SUMIGAW SA APAT NA ANGHEL NG BINIGYAN NG DIOS NG KAPANGYARIHAN NA MAMINSALA SA LUPA AT SA DAGAT ...KUNG SI FELIX Y MANALO ANG ANGHEL SA GAWING SILANGAN NA UMAAKYAT ...AT ANG BIG 4 ANG APAT NA ANGHEL ..

NGAYON ANG TANONG NATIN MAYROON BANG HISTORICAL BOOK NA ISINULAT ANG MGA HISTORIANS NA MAGPATOTOO NA SINIGAWAN NI MANALO O NAKAUSAP MAN LANG NI MANALO ITO BIG 4 .

AY NAKO KALUKUHAN PAG-UNAWA YATA YAN SA TALATA HINDI TUMUMPAK SA HULA ANG KAGANAPAN KASI WALANG INSTANCE NA ITONG FELIX Y MANALO AY NAGKAROON NG PAGKAKATAON NA NAKAUSAP MAN LANG ANG BIG 4 

AT HINDI KILALA NG BIG 4 ITONG SI MANALO ...KAYA SA PANAGINIP NLANG SIGURO NI MANALO NANGYARI NA SINIGAWAN NIYA ANG BIG 4 ...AT ANG DAHILAN DAW NG PAGSIGAW UPANG PIGILIN MUNA NG BIG 4 ANG GERA NUONG 1914 ...SAMANTALA LUMITAW ANG BIG 4 TAPUS NA GERA 

AT NUONG SUMIGAW SI MANALO NUONG 1914 WALANG GERA SA PILIPINAS NG PANAHON NA YAN KUNDI SA EUROPE LAMANG AT MIDDLE EAST ANG GERA NUONG UNANG DIGMAANG PANDAIGDIG 

LIBRENG -LIBRE SI MANALO MAGTATAK AT MANGARAL SA PILIPINAS NG PANAHON NA YON KASI WALA NAMANG GERA DITO BAKIT SISIGAWAN NIYA PA ANG BIG 4 NA PIGILIN MUNA NG BIG 4 NA HUWAG BUMUHOS ANG APAT NA HANGIN NA AYON SA KA KANILA GERA .

PANSININ NINYO ULI ANG NATATAKAN NG ANGHEL NA UMAAKYAT SA SILANGANAN AY LINGKOD NG DIOS NA ..TINATAKAN NIYA ITO SA NOO...PAANONG NAGANAP YAN NUONG 1914 EH MGA UNANG BUNGA NG PANGANGARAL NI MANALO AY MGA KATOLIKO AT AYON KAY MANALO HINDI NAMAN LINGKOD NG DIOS ANG MGA KATOLIKO "KUNDI MGA SA DEMONYO"

BAKIT NIYA PA SISIGAWAN ANG APAT NA ANGHEL ...NA HUWAG MUNANG PINSALAIN ANG LUPA AT DAGAT KUNG YONG MGA TATATAKAN NIYA LANG NAMAN AY MGA PILIPINO .

AT ANG MALAS NAMAN NI MANALO KASI DUON SA TALAGANG KINAGANAPAN NG GERA NUONG 1914 KAHIT ISANG EUROPEANS O MGA TAGA MIDDLE EAST WALA MAN LANG MAY NATATAKAN SI MANALO ...AT NADEDO LANG SI FELIX Y MANALO ANG IGLESIA NA ITINAYO NIYA HINDI MAN LANG NAKA PAG LOCAL SA ABROAD 

KUNG HINDI PA SIYA PINALITAN NG ANAK NIYA DAHIL NADEDO SIYA NA SI EDUARDO ...HINDI PA NARATING NG IGLESIA NIYA NA ITINAYO ANG HAWAII NUONG 1973 HEHEHEHE...

"Huwag muna ninyong pinsalain ang lupa, ang dagat o ang mga punongkahoy hangga't hindi pa natin nalalagyan ng tatak sa noo ang mga lingkod ng ating Diyos." At sinabi sa akin ang bilang ng mga tinatakan, 144,000 buhat sa labindalawang lipi ng Israel. Labindalawang libo mula sa bawat lipi ng Israel: Juda, Reuben, Gad, Aser, Neftali, Manases, Simeon, Levi, Isacar, Zebulun, Jose, at Benjamin.

AT PANSININ NINYO ULI NA YONG MGA NATATAKAN SA NOO NA MGA LINGKOD NG DIOS O ALIPIN NG DIOS AY MAY BILANG NA 144,000 ...PALPAK NA NAMAN SI MANALO KASI NUNG 1914 WALA PANG 144,000 ANG MEMBER NYA ...AT ITO ANG MATINDI ANG MGA NATATAKAN AY NAGMULA SA LAHI NI ISRAEL ...AT BINANGGIT PANG KUNG SAAN MGA TRIBO SILA NANGALING SA LABINDALAWANG TRIBO NG ISRAEL 

SAMANTALA YONG CONVERT NI MANALO NUONG 1914 AT HANGGANG NUONG 2ND WORLD WAR AY PAWANG MGA PINOY KAHIT ISANG ISRAELITA WALANG MAY NAGING CONVERT SI MANALO 

EH NGAYON NGA 2002 PA ANG CULTO NI MANALO NAGKA LOCAL SA ISRAEL HANGGANG NGAYON ANG NAGSISIMBA SA KAPELYA NILA SA ISRAEL AY MGA OFW AT MGA DOMISTIC HELPER NA MGA PILIPINO ...NI ISANG ISANG ISRAELITA WALANG CONVERT SILA SA ISRAEL.

KAYA MAHILIG MAGPATAWA ITONG MGA CULTO NI MANALO SA PAG INTERPRET NG BIBLE NA PALPAK NA MAN ANG UNAWA ...HINDI PALIWANAG ANG GINAGAWA SA BIBLE KUNDI PALABO ANG PAKA HULUGAN SA TALATA NG BIBLE.

AT NUNG MAGKA 2ND WORLD WAR ANG IBA DYAN SA BIG 4 AY DEADBOL NA.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

MOONLIGHT (SHINETH NOT)


Job 25:5

Behold even to the moon, and it shineth not; yea, the stars are not pure in his sight.


THE MOON SHINETH NOT -HOW THE WRITTER OF THE BOOK OF JOB KNOW THAT THE MOON SHINETH NOT


Moonlight is the light that reaches Earth from the Moon. This light is not created by the Moon, but mostly sunlight, with some starlight and earthlight. The Moon does not, however, reflect sunlight like a mirror, but it reflects light from those portions of its surface which the Sun's light strikes.See diffuse reflection for more on that topic.


The light from the Moon is actually the reflected light from the Sun! it is already in the BIBLE that the MOON LIGHT will be as the light of the Sun because Moon light is only a reflected light of the sun.

Moreover, the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun..."(Isaiah 30:26)

Every second, the Sun is converting 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium. This reaction lets out a tremendous amount of energy. Most of this energy heads off into space, but some of it falls on the planets and the moons in the Solar System. This is why we can see them at all. Without the Sun, only Jupiter and Saturn would be readily detectable in the infrared spectrum, as they give off more heat than they absorb from the Sun.

Different objects in the Solar System have a different amount of reflectivity. Astronomers call reflected light from the Sun albedo. The values for an object’s albedo can range between 0 (dark) and 1 (bright). The albedo for the Moon is 0.12. In other words, the Moon reflects 12% of the sunlight that falls onto it.

CONTINENTAL DRIFT



Job 9:5

Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger.

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other. The hypothesis that continents 'drift' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 and was fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. In the 1960s the theory of plate tectonics incorporated and improved upon continental drift: the Earth's surface seems to be broken into about ten major tectonic plates moving as the sea floor spreads, with the continents frozen into them.




EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE (SPREADETH OUT THE HEAVENS)



Seven books of the Bible reference this event starting from about 1000 BC in the book of Psalms, to about 518 BC in the book of Zechariah (a span of almost 500 years). This "stretching" of the universe was done during the creation week described in Genesis. Dr. Russell Humphreys suggests in his book Starlight and Time that it may have given the universe an older look the farther you move away from Earth into the outermost reaches of the universe. From Earth's perspective, the universe would be about 6,000 - 10,000 years old. However, in the outermost reaches of the universe, this rapid expansion may have given those galaxies the appearance of being billions of years old, even though they aged that much in what is most likely less than 24 hours.

English Standard Version
And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth,(Genesis 1:17)
Current evolutionary thinking suggests that the universe is still expanding. This is based in large part of the belief that 'red shift' indicates that the stars and galaxies are moving away from each other. However, Isaiah 40:22 seems to suggest that this expanding of the galaxies was a one time event that occurred in a very short amount of time (probably in less than 24 hours), and that the expansion may no longer be occurring. Tents and curtains don't keep expanding once they're fully opened up. They are finite in size. 


[It is] he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are] as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:
- Isaiah 40:22

Furthermore, none of these Bible verses appear to suggest that this expansion is still going on.

Do scientists really know what the impact would be of having the universe expanded at what was most likely millions or even billions of times faster than the speed of light? How would such a rapid expansion affect the visible red and blue shift we see today in space? How would that affect time, especially at the outer edges of the universe? Could the red shift that evolutionists believe indicates an expanding universe actually be the result of this rapid stretching of the universe that started and ended about 6,000 years ago?

Quotes below are from the King James Bible (KJV), and are listed in alphabetical order.


Ezekiel
Author(s): Ezekiel
Date: 592-570 B.C.


And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature [was] as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.
Ezekiel 1:22



Isaiah
Author(s): Isaiah
Date: 746-680 B.C.


[It is] he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are] as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:
- Isaiah 40:22

Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein:
Isaiah 42:5

Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I [am] the LORD that maketh all [things]; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;
Isaiah 44:24

I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, [even] my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.
Isaiah 45:12

Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: [when] I call unto them, they stand up together.
Isaiah 48:13

And forgettest the LORD thy maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth; and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were ready to destroy? and where [is] the fury of the oppressor?
Isaiah 51:13

Jeremiah
Author(s): Jeremiah
Date: 627-585 B.C.


He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion.
Jeremiah 10:12

He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding.
Jeremiah 51:15

Job
Author(s): Possibly Job, Elihu,
Moses or Solomon; not sure
Date: 950 B.C. or earlier

Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.
Job 9:8

He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, [and] hangeth the earth upon nothing.
Job 26:7

Hast thou with him spread out the sky, [which is] strong, [and] as a molten looking glass?
Job 37:18


Psalms
Author(s): Several
Date: Varied, about 1000 B.C.


He bowed the heavens also, and came down: and darkness [was] under his feet.
Psalms 18:9

Who coverest [thyself] with light as [with] a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:
Psalms 104:2

Bow thy heavens, O LORD, and come down: touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.
Psalms 144:5


2 Samuel
Author(s): Samuel, Nathan, Gad
Date: About 930 BC


He bowed the heavens also, and came down; and darkness [was] under his feet.
2 Samuel 22:10


Zechariah
Author(s): Zechariah
Date: 520-518 B.C.


The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.
Zechariah 12:1

Job 9:8
Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.

Spacetime is highly curved at cosmological scales, and as a result the expansion of the universe is inherently general relativistic; it cannot be understood with special relativity alone. The images to the right show two views of the large-scale geometry of the universe according to the ΛCDM cosmological model. Two of the dimensions of space are omitted, leaving one dimension of space and one of time. The narrow circular end of the diagram corresponds to a cosmological time of 700 million years after the big bang; the wide end is a cosmological time of 18 billion years, where one can see the beginning of the accelerating expansion which eventually dominates in this model. The purple grid lines mark off cosmological time at intervals of one billion years from the big bang. The cyan grid lines mark off comoving distance at intervals of one billion light years. Note that the circular curling of the surface is an artifact of the embedding with no physical significance; space does not actually curl around on itself. (A similar effect can be seen in the tubular shape of the pseudosphere.)


"Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:(Psalms 104:2)


Holman Christian Standard Bible
God is enthroned above the circle of the earth; its inhabitants are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like thin cloth and spreads them out like a tent to live in.(Isaiah 40:22)


"Who Stretchest out the heavens or "who expant the heavens like a curtain


The brown line on the diagram is the worldline of the Earth (or, at earlier times, of the matter which condensed to form the Earth). The yellow line is the worldline of the most distant known quasar. The red line is the path of a light beam emitted by the quasar about 13 billion years ago and reaching the Earth in the present day. The orange line shows the present-day distance between the quasar and the Earth, about 28 billion light years.


According to the equivalence principle of general relativity, the rules of special relativity are locally valid in small regions of spacetime that are approximately flat. In particular, light always travels locally at the speed c; in our diagram, this means that light beams always makes an angle of 45° with the local grid lines. It does not follow, however, that light travels a distance ct in a time t, as the red worldline illustrates. While it always moves locally at c, its time in transit (about 13 billion years) is not related to the distance traveled in any simple way. In fact the distance traveled is inherently ambiguous because of the changing scale of the universe. Nevertheless, we can single out two distances which appear to be physically meaningful: the distance between the Earth and the quasar when the light was emitted, and the distance between them in the present era. The former distance is about 4 billion light years, much smaller than ct. The latter distance (shown by the orange line) is about 28 billion light years, much larger than ct. Note that the light took much longer than 4 billion years to reach us though it was emitted from only 4 billion light years away. In fact, we can see from the diagram that the light was moving away from the Earth when it was first emitted, in the sense that the metric distance to the Earth increased with cosmological time for the first few billion years of its travel time. None of this surprising behavior originates from a special property of metric expansion, but simply from local principles of special relativity integrated over a curved surface.
What space is the universe expanding into?




A graphical representation of the expansion of the universe with the inflationary epoch represented as the dramatic expansion of the metric seen on the left.


Over time, the space that makes up the universe is expanding. The words 'space' and 'universe', sometimes used interchangeably, have distinct meanings in this context. Here 'space' is a mathematical concept and 'universe' refers to all the matter and energy that exist. The expansion of space is in reference to internal dimensions only; that is, the description involves no structures such as extra dimensions or an exterior universe.

Finite space theory does not suppose space has an edge, but rather that space wraps around on itself. If it were possible to travel the entire length of space without going faster than light, one would simply end up back in the same place, like going all the way around the surface of a balloon (or a planet like the Earth)

The notion of more space is local, not global; we do not know how much space there is in total. The embedding diagram has been arbitrarily cut off a few billion years past the Earth and the quasar, but it could be extended indefinitely, even infinitely, provided we imagine it as curling into a spiral of constant radius rather than a circle. Even if the overall spatial extent is infinite we still say that space is expanding because, locally, the characteristic distance between objects is increasing.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

WATER EVAPORATION BIBLICAL

 

Job 36:27

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Job 36:27

For he maketh small the drops of water: they pour down rain according to the vapour thereof:

 Amos 9:6

"[It is] he that buildeth his stories in the heaven, and hath founded his troop in the earth; he that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD [is] his name.



Psalms 135:7

"He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain; he bringeth the wind out of his treasuries.

Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs on the entire mass of the liquid.

On average, the molecules in a glass of water do not have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. With sufficient heat, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly (see boiling point). When the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide. Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with enough energy to 'escape' (evaporate).

Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle. The sun (solar energy) drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water. In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor; this vapor can then rise up and form clouds.

Friday, March 23, 2012

FOUNDATIONS OF THE EARTH BIBLICAL








The "Earth Pillars" and Foundations  is divided into lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and the inner core.


Job 38:4
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

Isaiah 14:19

But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, [and as] the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.

A slab sinking through the upper mantle and upper-lower mantle, then stalling and pooling at a depth of 930 miles where there’s an extremely stiff or viscous layer. Below that, slabs continue to sink to the core-mantle boundary - Lowell Miyagi, University

We know about the crust under the oceans and continents, the mantle that goes on for 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles), and the iron core. Now, Earth’s got a new layer. By crushing minerals between anvils made of diamonds, researchers have discovered that the top part of the lower mantle contains an incredibly stiff layer of rock. Thefindings were published in Nature Geoscience this week.


Scientists have discovered a layer of liquified molten rock in Earth's mantle that may be responsible for the sliding motions of the planet's massive tectonic plates.

The finding may carry far-reaching implications, from understanding basic geologic functions of the planet to new insights into volcanism and earthquakes.


Psalms 104:5 "[Who] laid the foundations of the earth


Job 9:6"Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.


 Job 38:6
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof:

Statistical description of the heterogeneity of earth foundation beds with random layer arrangement

The interior structure of the Earth, similar to the outer, is layered. These layers can be defined by either their chemical or their rheological properties. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of Earth's internal structure is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravity field of the Earth, and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and temperatures characteristic of the Earth's deep interior which is the foundation of earth structure.

The structure of Earth can be defined in two ways: by mechanical properties such as rheology, or chemically. Mechanically, it can be divided into lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesospheric mantle, outer core, and the inner core. The interior of Earth is divided into 5 important layers. Chemically, Earth can be divided into the crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, and inner core. The geologic component layers of Earth  is the pillar and foundation of earth structure .

‘for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he hath set the world upon them;’(1 Samuel 2:8)

World English Bible
The earth and all its inhabitants quake. I firmly hold its pillars. Selah.(Psalms 75:3)

EARTH CRUST IS THE FACE OF THE EARTH IT  IS THE OUTERMOST SOLID SHELL OF THE EARTH .

And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place,(Acts 17:26)

Geologists in the US say Earth might have a previously undiscovered layer of ultra-strong rock hiding in its mantle, some 1,500 km (930 miles) beneath our feet. 

The new layer is up to three times stronger than rocks in the less viscous upper mantle, and could explain why portions of sinking tectonic plates sometimes stall and thicken at this depth - a phenomenon that has for years puzzled geologists.

The finding challenges the existing understanding of Earth's internal structure, and researchers say, if it's true, it might also help explain the occurrence of earthquakes in the deep mantle. 

Earth’s main layers include its relatively thin crust, which extends from just below the surface to about 80 km deep. Next there's the mantle, which extends to about 2,900 km deep, followed by its iron core. 

“Most layers are defined by the minerals that are present,” said geophysicist Lowell Miyagi from the University of Utah in a press release. "Essentially, we have discovered a new layer in the Earth. This layer isn't defined by the minerals present, but by the strength of these minerals.”

The team’s results, which were published in the journal Nature Geoscience, suggest the new, ultra-stiff rock layer is located somewhere near the the middle of the mantle, and is temporarily trapping subducting plates. 

The crust of the Earth is composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The crust is underlain by the mantle. The upper part of the mantle is composed mostly of peridotite, a rock denser than rocks common in the overlying crust. The boundary between the crust and mantle is conventionally placed at the Mohorovičić discontinuity, a boundary defined by a contrast in seismic velocity. The crust occupies less than 1% of Earth's volume.The oceanic crust of the sheet is different from its continental crust. The oceanic crust is 5 km (3 mi) to 10 km (6 mi) thickand is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro. The continental crust is typically from 30 km (20 mi) to 50 km (30 mi) thick and is mostly composed of slightly less dense rocks than those of the oceanic crust. Some of these less dense rocks, such as granite, are common in the continental crust but rare to absent in the oceanic crust. Both the continental and oceanic crust "float" on the mantle. Because the continental crust is thicker, it extends both above and below the oceanic crust. The slightly lighter density of felsic continental rock compared to basaltic ocean rock contributes to the higher relative elevation of the top of the continental crust. Because the top of the continental crust is above that of the oceanic, water runs off the continents and collects above the oceanic crust. The continental crust and the oceanic crust are sometimes called sial and sima respectively. Because of the change in velocity of seismic waves it is believed that on continents at a certain depth sial becomes close in its physical properties to sima, and the dividing line is called the Conrad discontinuity.

DISCOVERY TRIPLES NUMBER OF STAR IN UNIVERSE




Jeremiah 33:22

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Jeremiah 33:22


As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured: so will I multiply the seed of David my servant, and the Levites that minister unto me.


Discovery Triples Number of Stars in Universe

ScienceDaily (Dec. 1, 2010) — Astronomers have discovered that small, dim stars known as red dwarfs are much more prolific than previously thought -- so much so that the total number of stars in the universe is likely three times bigger than realized.

See Also:
Space & Time
Stars
Galaxies
Astrophysics
Extrasolar Planets
Jupiter
Cosmology
Reference
Supergiant
Blue supergiant star
Red giant
Star cluster

Because red dwarfs are relatively small and dim compared to stars like our Sun, astronomers hadn't been able to detect them in galaxies other than our own Milky Way and its nearest neighbors before now. As such, they did not know how much of the total stellar population of the universe is made up of red dwarfs.

Now astronomers have used powerful instruments on the Keck Observatory in Hawaii to detect the faint signature of red dwarfs in eight massive, relatively nearby galaxies called elliptical galaxies, which are located between about 50 million and 300 million light years away. They discovered that the red dwarfs, which are only between 10 and 20 percent as massive as the Sun, were much more bountiful than expected.

"No one knew how many of these stars there were," said Pieter van Dokkum, a Yale University astronomer who led the research, which is described in Nature's Dec.1 Advanced Online Publication. "Different theoretical models predicted a wide range of possibilities, so this answers a longstanding question about just how abundant these stars are."

The team discovered that there are about 20 times more red dwarfs in elliptical galaxies than in the Milky Way, said Charlie Conroy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who was also involved in the research.

"We usually assume other galaxies look like our own. But this suggests other conditions are possible in other galaxies," Conroy said. "So this discovery could have a major impact on our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution."

For instance, Conroy said, galaxies might contain less dark matter -- a mysterious substance that has mass but cannot be directly observed -- than previous measurements of their masses might have indicated. Instead, the abundant red dwarfs could contribute more mass than realized.

In addition to boosting the total number of stars in the universe, the discovery also increases the number of planets orbiting those stars, which in turn elevates the number of planets that might harbor life, van Dokkum said. In fact, a recently discovered exoplanet that astronomers believe could potentially support life orbits a red dwarf star, called Gliese 581.

"There are possibly trillions of Earths orbiting these stars," van Dokkum said, adding that the red dwarfs they discovered, which are typically more than 10 billion years old, have been around long enough for complex life to evolve. "It's one reason why people are interested in this type of star."
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GREAT EMPTY SPACE IN THE NORTH (BIBLICAL-ASTRONOMY PROBE)






New International Version (©1984)
He spreads out the northern [skies] over empty space; he suspends the earth over nothing.(Job 26:7)



Astronomers have discovered a great empty space in the North - IN THE NEBULA OF THE CONSTELLATION OF ORION (!!!!!!!! - my emphasis)

a heavenly cavern so gigantic that the mind of man cannot comprehend it, and so brilliantly beautiful that words cannot adequately describe it. These revelations were made possible by gigantic lenses, plus long exposures of photographic plates, which in turn can be further magnified.

This increases the vision of man so tremendously that he is able to peer into the depths of interstellar space and glimpse the vastness of infinity itself ... (Job 26:7.)"

Astronomers seem to agree that there is a huge opening in Orion which is perhaps more than sixteen trillion miles in diameter. This means that across the entrance of this opening in the North, there could be 30,000 solar systems like ours with a sun in the middle of each -- and still there would be room to spare.

One scientist, Mr. Learkin of Mt. Lowe Observatory, describes it this way: "The interior of the cavern is so stupendous that our entire solar system would be lost therein. I have watched it since the days of youth in many telescopes of many powers," he said, "but I never dreamed that the central region is the mouth of a colossal cave.

The pen of a writer and the brush of an artist would be lifeless and inert in any attempt to describe this interior; for the depth of the Orion nebula appears like torn and twisted objects and river masses of shining glass, irregular pillars, columns of stalactites in glittering splendor and stalagmites from the mighty floor.

The appearance is like that of light shining and glowing behind the clear walls of ivory and pearl, studded with millions of diamonds like shining stars."

The scientist went on to say that there must be some reason why all this grandeur is lavished on this one spot in the heavens. "The colors are a hue peculiar to the Orion and studded around the opening so that they appear as a pavement of starry sand.

No wonder the astronomers (many of them not religious), say they feel as if they were in some Almighty "Presence" while scanning this part of the heavens and become speechless before this great outburst of grandeur extending for trillions of miles through space."

The North seems to have great significance in God´s Word. ... (Psalms 48: 1&2.)

GRAVITATION "EARTH SUSPENDS OVER NOTHING" BIBLICAL






New International Version (©1984)
He spreads out the northern [skies] over empty space; he suspends the earth over nothing.(Job 26:7)



Gravitation, or gravity, is a natural phenomenon by which physical bodies attract with a force proportional to their mass Gravitation is most familiar as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. Gravitation causes dispersed matter to coalesce, and coalesced matter to remain intact, thus accounting for the existence of the Earth, the Sun, and most of the macroscopic objects in the universe.

Matthew 10:29

"Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.(Fall of Gravity)

Gravitation is responsible for keeping the Earth and the other planets in their orbits around the Sun; for keeping the Moon in its orbit around the Earth; for the formation of tides; for natural convection, by which fluid flow occurs under the influence of a density gradient and gravity; for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; and for various other phenomena observed on Earth.

Gravitation is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, along with electromagnetism, and the nuclear strong force and weak force. Modern physics describes gravitation using the general theory of relativity by Einstein, in which it is a consequence of the curvature of spacetime governing the motion of inertial objects. The simpler Newton's law of universal gravitation provides an accurate approximation for most physical situations.

Thursday, March 22, 2012

EARTH ROTATION BIBLICAL


Ephesians 2:2"Wherein in time past ye walked according to the COURSE OF this WORLD, ..."



course (kôrs, krs)
n.
1.
a. Onward movement in a particular direction; progress: the course of events.
b. Movement in time; duration: in the course of a year.
2. The direction of continuing movement: took a northern course.
3. The route or path taken by something, such as a stream, that moves. See Synonyms at way.

Earth's rotation is the rotation of the solid Earth around its own axis. The Earth rotates towards the east. As viewed from the North Star Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise.

Rotation period


Earth's axial tilt (or obliquity) and its relation to the rotation axis and plane of orbit as viewed from the Sun during the March equinox.

On a prograde planet like the Earth, the stellar day is shorter than the solar day. At time 1, the Sun and a certain distant star are both overhead. At time 2, the planet has rotated 360° and the distant star is overhead again but the Sun is not (1→2 = one stellar day). It is not until a little later, at time 3, that the Sun is overhead again (1→3 = one solar day).

Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun (true noon to true noon) is its true solar day or apparent solar day. It depends on the Earth's orbital motion and is thus affected by changes in the eccentricity and inclination of Earth's orbit. Both vary over thousands of years so the annual variation of the true solar day also varies. Generally, it is longer than the mean solar day during two periods of the year and shorter during another two.The true solar day tends to be longer near perihelion when the Sun apparently moves along the ecliptic through a greater angle than usual, taking about 10 seconds longer to do so. Conversely, it is about 10 seconds shorter near aphelion. It is about 20 seconds longer near a solstice when the projection of the Sun's apparent movement along the ecliptic onto the celestial equator causes the Sun to move through a greater angle than usual. Conversely, near an equinox the projection onto the equator is shorter by about 20 seconds. Currently, the perihelion and solstice effects combine to lengthen the true solar day near December 22 by 30 mean solar seconds, but the solstice effect is partially cancelled by the aphelion effect near June 19 when it is only 13 seconds longer. The effects of the equinoxes shorten it near March 26 and September 16 by 18 seconds and 21 seconds, respectively.

The average of the true solar day during the course of an entire year is the mean solar day, which contains 86,400 mean solar seconds. Currently, each of these seconds is slightly longer than an SI second because Earth's mean solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal friction. The average length of the mean solar day since the introduction of the leap second in 1972 has been about 0 to 2 ms longer than 86,400 SI seconds.Random fluctuations due to core-mantle coupling have an amplitude of about 5 ms.The mean solar second between 1750 and 1892 was chosen in 1895 by Simon Newcomb as the independent unit of time in his Tables of the Sun. These tables were used to calculate the world's ephemerides between 1900 and 1983, so this second became known as the ephemeris second. In 1967 the SI second was made equal to the ephemeris second.
The apparent solar time is a measure of the Earth's rotation and the difference between it and the mean solar time is known as the equation of time.

Earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars, called its stellar day by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), is 86,164.098 903 691 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4.098 903 691s, 0.997 269 663 237 16 mean solar days).Earth's rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean vernal equinox, misnamed its sidereal day, is 86,164.090 530 832 88 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4.090 530 832 88s, 0.997 269 566 329 08 mean solar days).Thus the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.4 ms. In 499 CE Aryabhata, a great mathematician-astronomer from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy estimated the length of sidereal day as 23h 56m 4.1s.
Both the stellar day and the sidereal day are shorter than the mean solar day by about 3 minutes 56 seconds. The mean solar day in SI seconds is available from the IERS for the periods 1623–2005and 1962–2005.

A 3571 second exposure of the northern sky.

Deviation of day length from SI based day, 1962–2010
Recently (1999–2010) the average annual length of the mean solar day in excess of 86,400 SI seconds has varied between 0.25 ms and 1 ms, which must be added to both the stellar and sidereal days given in mean solar time above to obtain their lengths in SI seconds.

The angular speed of Earth's rotation in inertial space is (7.2921150 ± 0.0000001) ×10−5 radians per SI second (mean solar second).Multiplying by (180°/π radians)×(86,400 seconds/mean solar day) yields 360.9856°/mean solar day, indicating that Earth rotates more than 360° relative to the fixed stars in one solar day. Earth's movement along its nearly circular orbit while it is rotating once around its axis requires that Earth rotate slightly more than once relative to the fixed stars before the mean Sun can pass overhead again, even though it rotates only once (360°) relative to the mean Sun. Multiplying the value in rad/s by Earth's equatorial radius of 6,378,137 m (WGS84 ellipsoid) (factors of 2π radians needed by both cancel) yields an equatorial speed of 465.1 m/s, 1,674.4 km/h or 1,040.4 mi/h.Some sources state that Earth's equatorial speed is slightly less, or 1,669.8 km/h.This is obtained by dividing Earth's equatorial circumference by 24 hours. However, the use of only one circumference unwittingly implies only one rotation in inertial space, so the corresponding time unit must be a sidereal hour. This is confirmed by multiplying by the number of sidereal days in one mean solar day, 1.002 737 909 350 795,which yields the equatorial speed in mean solar hours given above of 1,674.4 km/h.

The tangential speed of Earth's rotation at a point on Earth can be approximated by multiplying the speed at the equator by the cosine of the latitude.For example, the Kennedy Space Center is located at 28.59° North latitude, which yields a speed of: 1,674.4 kilometres per hour (1,040.4 mph) * cos (28.59) = 1,470.23 kilometres per hour (913.56 mph)

The permanent monitoring of the Earth's rotation requires the use of Very Long Baseline Interferometry coordinated with the Global Positioning System, Satellite laser ranging, and other satellite techniques.

 This provides the absolute reference for the determination of universal time, precession, and nutation.
Over millions of years, the rotation is significantly slowed by gravitational interactions with the Moon; both rotational energy and angular momentum are being slowly transferred to the Moon: see tidal acceleration. However some large scale events, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, have caused the rotation to speed up by around 3 microseconds by affecting the Earth's moment of inertia.Post-glacial rebound, ongoing since the last Ice age, is also changing the distribution of the Earth's mass thus affecting the moment of inertia of the Earth and, by the conservation of angular momentum, the Earth's rotation period.

 Precession, nutation, and polar motion

The Earth's rotation axis moves with respect to the fixed stars (inertial space); the components of this motion are precession and nutation. The Earth's rotation axis also moves with respect to the Earth's crust; this is called polar motion.
Precession is a rotation of the Earth's rotation axis, caused primarily by external torques from the gravity of the Sun, Moon and other bodies. The polar motion is primarily due to free core nutation and the Chandler wobble.

Let us walk honestly, as in the day;(Romans 13:13)

"walk" to a literal definition is "To go,or travel    "the day travel when the earth rotates  Atomic clocks show that a modern day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago,slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. 

How Long it Takes for Earth  to Orbit the Sun

If one was asked the questions, “How long is a day?” and “How long is a year?” they would probably be very offended by such a simple question. A day is 24 hours, while a year is 365 days long, 366 during a leap year.

The Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below). Earth's rotation is slowing slightly with time; thus, a day was shorter in the past. This is due to the tidal effects the Moon has on Earth's rotation. Atomic clocks show that a modern day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago,slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds.

True solar day
Main article: Solar time

Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun (true noon to true noon) is its true solar day or apparent solar day. It depends on the Earth's orbital motion and is thus affected by changes in the eccentricity and inclination of Earth's orbit. Both vary over thousands of years so the annual variation of the true solar day also varies. Generally, it is longer than the mean solar day during two periods of the year and shorter during another two. The true solar day tends to be longer near perihelion when the Sun apparently moves along the ecliptic through a greater angle than usual, taking about 10 seconds longer to do so. Conversely, it is about 10 seconds shorter near aphelion. It is about 20 seconds longer near a solstice when the projection of the Sun's apparent movement along the ecliptic onto the celestial equator causes the Sun to move through a greater angle than usual. Conversely, near anequinox the projection onto the equator is shorter by about 20 seconds. Currently, the perihelion and solstice effects combine to lengthen the true solar day near December 22 by 30 mean solar seconds, but the solstice effect is partially cancelled by the aphelion effect near June 19 when it is only13 seconds longer. The effects of the equinoxes shorten it near March 26 and September 16 by 18 seconds and 21 seconds, respectively.

Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.(John 11:9)

A Hebrew Hour is defined as 1/12 of the time between sunset and sunrise, or 1/12 of the time between sunrise and sunset. The only Scriptural reference to there being 12 Hebrew Hours in a Hebrew Day is found inJohn 11:9 where יהושע the Messiah asked a famous question, "Are there not 12 hours in a day?" 

The average of the true solar day during the course of an entire year is the mean solar day, which contains 86,400 mean solar seconds. Currently, each of these seconds is slightly longer than anSI second because Earth's mean solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal friction. The average length of the mean solar day since the introduction of the leap second in 1972 has been about 0 to 2 ms longer than 86,400 SI seconds.Random fluctuations due to core-mantle coupling have an amplitude of about 5 ms. The mean solar second between 1750 and 1892 was chosen in 1895 by Simon Newcomb as the independent unit of time in his Tables of the Sun. These tables were used to calculate the world's ephemeridesbetween 1900 and 1983, so this second became known as the ephemeris second. In 1967 the SI second was made equal to the ephemeris second.

The apparent solar time is a measure of the Earth's rotation and the difference between it and the mean solar time is known as the equation of time.

TYPES OF STAR BIBLICAL


1 CORITHIANS 15:41

41[There is] one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for [one] star differeth from [another] star in glory."

Types of Stars


Red giant Betelgeuse. Image credit: Hubble Space Telescope
Red giant Betelgeuse. Image credit: Hubble Space Telescope

A star is a star, right? Well, not exactly. There are many different types of stars, from the tiny brown dwarfs to the red and blue supergiants. There are even more bizarre kinds of stars, like neutron stars and Wolf-Rayet stars. Let’s take a look at all the different types of stars there are.Protostar
A protostar is what you have before a star forms. A protostar is a collection of gas that has collapsed down from a giant molecular cloud. The protostar phase of stellar evolution lasts about 100,000 years. Over time, gravity and pressure increase, forcing the protostar to collapse down. All of the energy release by the protostar comes only from the heating caused by the gravitational energy – nuclear fusion reactions haven’t started yet.
T Tauri Star
A T Tauri star is stage in a star’s formation and evolution right before it becomes a main sequence star. This phase occurs at the end of the protostar phase, when the gravitational pressure holding the star together is the source of all its energy. T Tauri stars don’t have enough pressure and temperature at their cores to generate nuclear fusion, but they do resemble main sequence stars; they’re about the same temperature but brighter because they’re a larger. T Tauri stars can have large areas of sunspot coverage, and have intense X-ray flares and extremely powerful stellar winds. Stars will remain in the T Tauri stage for about 100 million years.
Main Sequence Star
The majority of all stars in our galaxy, and even the Universe, are main sequence stars. Our Sun is a main sequence star, and so are our nearest neighbors, Sirius and Alpha Centauri A. Main sequence stars can vary in size, mass and brightness, but they’re all doing the same thing: converting hydrogen into helium in their cores, releasing a tremendous amount of energy.
A star in the main sequence is in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. Gravity is pulling the star inward, and the light pressure from all the fusion reactions in the star are pushing outward. The inward and outward forces balance one another out, and the star maintains a spherical shape. Stars in the main sequence will have a size that depends on their mass, which defines the amount of gravity pulling them inward.

The lower mass limit for a main sequence star is about 0.08 times the mass of the Sun, or 80 times the mass of Jupiter. This is the minimum amount of gravitational pressure you need to ignite fusion in the core. Stars can theoretically grow to more than 100 times the mass of the Sun.

Red Giant Star
When a star has consumed its stock of hydrogen in its core, fusion stops and the star no longer generates an outward pressure to counteract the inward pressure pulling it together. A shell of hydrogen around the core ignites continuing the life of the star, but causes it to increase in size dramatically. The aging star has become a red giant star, and can be 100 times larger than it was in its main sequence phase. When this hydrogen fuel is used up, further shells of helium and even heavier elements can be consumed in fusion reactions. The red giant phase of a star’s life will only last a few hundred million years before it runs out of fuel completely and becomes a white dwarf.
White Dwarf Star
When a star has completely run out of hydrogen fuel in its core and it lacks the mass to force higher elements into fusion reaction, it becomes a white dwarf star. The outward light pressure from the fusion reaction stops and the star collapses inward under its own gravity. A white dwarf shines because it was a hot star once, but there’s no fusion reactions happening any more. A white dwarf will just cool down until it because the background temperature of the Universe. This process will take hundreds of billions of years, so no white dwarfs have actually cooled down that far yet.
Red Dwarf Star
Red dwarf stars are the most common kind of stars in the Universe. These are main sequence stars but they have such low mass that they’re much cooler than stars like our Sun. They have another advantage. Red dwarf stars are able to keep the hydrogen fuel mixing into their core, and so they can conserve their fuel for much longer than other stars. Astronomers estimate that some red dwarf stars will burn for up to 10 trillion years. The smallest red dwarfs are 0.075 times the mass of the Sun, and they can have a mass of up to half of the Sun.
Neutron Stars
If a star has between 1.35 and 2.1 times the mass of the Sun, it doesn’t form a white dwarf when it dies. Instead, the star dies in a catastrophic supernova explosion, and the remaining core becomes a neutron star. As its name implies, a neutron star is an exotic type of star that is composed entirely of neutrons. This is because the intense gravity of the neutron star crushes protons and electrons together to form neutrons. If stars are even more massive, they will become black holes instead of neutron stars after the supernova goes off.
Supergiant Stars
The largest stars in the Universe are supergiant stars. These are monsters with dozens of times the mass of the Sun. Unlike a relatively stable star like the Sun, supergiants are consuming hydrogen fuel at an enormous rate and will consume all the fuel in their cores within just a few million years. Supergiant stars live fast and die young, detonating as supernovae; completely disintegrating themselves in the process.
We have written many articles about stars on Universe Today. Here’s an article that talks about how massive stars form.
Want more information on stars? Here’s Hubblesite’s News Releases about Stars, and more information from NASA’s imagine the Universe.
We have recorded several episodes of Astronomy Cast about stars. Here are two that you might find helpful: