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Saturday, June 30, 2012

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY



Genesis 4:12

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Genesis 4:12

When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.

 

Psalms 144:5

Viewing the King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Psalms 144:5.

Bow thy heavens, O LORD, and come down: touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.


Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge), meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos), meaning hot.

At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created by radioactive decay and temperatures may reach over 5000 degrees Celsius (9,000 degrees Fahrenheit). Heat conducts from the core to surrounding cooler rock. The high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, creating magma convection upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. The magma heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 370 degrees Celsius (700 degrees Fahrenheit)

 

Monday, June 18, 2012

ELECTRIC RAZOR




Isaiah 7:20

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Isaiah 7:20

In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, namely, by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet: and it shall also consume the beard.


razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving. Kinds of razors includestraight razorsdisposable razors and electric razors.
While the razor has been in existence since the Bronze Age, its modern counterpart was invented in the 18th century, and the 1930s saw the invention of electric razors. In the 21st century, the safety razor - electric or not - is most commonly used by both men and women, but other kinds still exist.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

METEOR DUST CATALIST ON RAINFALL

Meteor Dust

the minutest solid particles, measuring from several micrometers to fractions of a millimeter, that arise as a result of the ablation of meteoroids during the passage of the meteoroid through the earth’s atmosphere. The trails of bolides consist of meteor dust.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.



Deuteronomy 28:24

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Deuteronomy 28:24

The LORD shall make the rain of thy land powder and dust: from heaven shall it come down upon thee, until thou be destroyed.

 

"Meteor Dust" was one the  catalist on rainfall according to Scientific Study bible already revealed it thousand of years before the discovery that The LORD Shall make the rain of thy Land POWDER and DUST From heaven shall come down.


Friday, June 15, 2012

WIND CYCLE


The Wind Cycle


"

Ecclesiastes 1:6

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Ecclesiastes 1:6

The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits.


To start class we discussed what we use a fan for (to move air) and how it works (electricity spins a motor that has shaped blades attached to it, the blades pull the air through and we feel the air). We then talked about wind being moving air as well (but it does not need electricity). This led us to a discussion on how wind is formed:
1. Sun heats the air. 
2. Hot air rises. 
3. Cool air moves into fill the space. 
4. This moving air is wind.
On our worksheet we labelled a diagram showing the wind cycle and wrote a paragraph explaining it.


PRINCIPLE OF EARTH ROTATION




Psalms 113:3

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Psalms 113:3

From the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same the LORD'S name is to be praised.


Ecclesiastes 1:5

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The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.



Earth's rotation is the rotation of the solid Earth around its own axis. The Earth rotates towards the east. As viewed from the North Star Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise.

Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars.(Job 9:7)

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

COMPASS


Isaiah 44:13

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The carpenter stretcheth out his rule; he marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with planes, and he marketh it out with the compass, and maketh it after the figure of a man, according to the beauty of a man; that it may remain in the house.



A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) – north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation.

There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyrocompass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's.

Monday, June 11, 2012

FAULT LINE



Genesis 7:11

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In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of 

heaven were opened.


All the Fountains of the Great deep of the earth was broken up "when the fauntains of the great deep was broken up it is cause broken line (fault line) in the surface of the earth .






In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement along the fractures as a result of earth movement. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces. Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes, such as occurs on the San Andreas FaultCalifornia.
fault line is the surface trace of a fault, the line of intersection between the fault plane and the Earth's surface.
Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, geologists use the term fault zone when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.
The two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall. By definition, the hanging wall occurs above the fault plane and the footwall occurs below the fault. This terminology comes from mining: when working a tabular ore body, the miner stood with the footwall under his feet and with the hanging wall hanging above him.

PRINCIPLE OF VOICE RECORDING



Psalms 62:11

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God hath spoken once; twice have I heard this; that power belongeth unto God.



Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a small microphone diaphragm that can detect changes in atmospheric pressure (acoustic sound waves) and record them as a graphic representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph (in which a stylus senses grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Electronically generated sound waves may also be recorded directly from devices such as an electric guitar pickup or asynthesizer, without the use of acoustics in the recording process other than the need for musicians to hear how well they are playing during recording sessions.
Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by a process of digitization, allowing it to be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. Digital recordings are considered higher quality than analog recordings not necessarily because they have higher fidelity (wider frequency response ordynamic range), but because the digital format can prevent much loss of quality found in analog recording due to noise and electromagnetic interference in playback, and mechanical deterioration or damage to the storage medium. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is applied to a loudspeaker or earphones.

Sunday, June 10, 2012

BONES DEVELOP IN THE WOMB


Ecclesiastes 11:5

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Ecclesiastes 11:5

As thou knowest not what is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones do grow in the womb of her that is with child: even so thou knowest not the works of God who maketh all.

Third Week in the Womb

  • The blastocyst is now an embryo. This is when the baby's brain, spinal cord, heart and organs begin to form. According to Mayo Clinic, the embryo is made of three layers; first the ectoderm, which is the outermost layer of skin, the eyes, inner ear, connective tissues and the central and peripheral nervous systems. The baby's heart, bones, muscles, kidneys, and most of the reproductive system are formed in the middle layer of cells that is called the mesoderm. The baby's lungs, intestines and bladder are formed in the inner layer of cells, which is called the endoderm. According to Gerber, "A sheet of cells on the back of the embryo folds in the middle to form a tube, which will become the baby's spinal cord." At one end of this tube the brain and its major sections are formed. At the end of this week the baby is about the size of the tip of a pen.


MOON ORBITED


Job 31:26

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If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness;

The Earth's natural satellite. United States and Soviet spacecraft have obtained lunar data and samples, and American astronauts have orbited, landed upon, and roved upon the Moon.

The Earth and Moon now make one revolution about their barycenter, or common center of mass (a point about 4670 km from the Earth's center), in 27d 7h 43m 11.6s. This sidereal period is slowly lengthening, and the distance (now about 60.27 earth radii) between centers of mass is increasing, because of tidal friction in the oceans of the Earth.

The Moon's present orbit is inclined about 5° to the plane of the ecliptic. As a result of differential attraction by the Sun on the Earth-Moon system, the Moon's orbital plane rotates slowly relative to the ecliptic (the line of nodes regresses in an average period of 18.60 years) and the Moon's apogee and perigee rotate slowly in the plane of the orbit (the line of apsides advances in a period of 8.850 years). Looking down on the system from the north, the Moon moves counterclockwise. It travels along its orbit at an average speed of nearly 0.6 mi/s (1 km/s) or about 1 lunar diameter per hour.

WHY IS THE SKY BLUE


Job 37:18

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Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass?

It means Because God made the sky spread out as molten looking Glass the sky is create reflection a day time sky is blue because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun.

Why is the sky blue?

A clear cloudless day-time sky is blue because molecules in the air scatter blue light from the sun more than they scatter red light.  When we look towards the sun at sunset, we see red and orange colours because the blue light has been scattered out and away from the line of sight.
The white light from the sun is a mixture of all colours of the rainbow.  This was demonstrated by Isaac Newton, who used a prism to separate the different colours and so form a spectrum.  The colours of light are distinguished by their different wavelengths.  The visible part of the spectrum ranges from red light with a wavelength of about 720 nm, to violet with a wavelength of about 380 nm, with orange, yellow, green, blue and indigo between.  The three different types of colour receptors in the retina of the human eye respond most strongly to red, green and blue wavelengths, giving us our colour vision.

Tyndall Effect

The first steps towards correctly explaining the colour of the sky were taken by John Tyndall in 1859.  He discovered that when light passes through a clear fluid holding small particles in suspension, the shorter blue wavelengths are scattered more strongly than the red.  This can be demonstrated by shining a beam of white light through a tank of water with a little milk or soap mixed in.  From the side, the beam can be seen by the blue light it scatters; but the light seen directly from the end is reddened after it has passed through the tank.  The scattered light can also be shown to be polarised using a filter of polarised light, just as the sky appears a deeper blue through polaroid sun glasses.
This is most correctly called the Tyndall effect, but it is more commonly known to physicists as Rayleigh scattering—after Lord Rayleigh, who studied it in more detail a few years later.  He showed that the amount of light scattered is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength for sufficiently small particles.  It follows that blue light is scattered more than red light by a factor of (700/400)4 ~= 10.

Dust or Molecules?

Tyndall and Rayleigh thought that the blue colour of the sky must be due to small particles of dust and droplets of water vapour in the atmosphere.  Even today, people sometimes incorrectly say that this is the case.  Later scientists realised that if this were true, there would be more variation of sky colour with humidity or haze conditions than was actually observed, so they supposed correctly that the molecules of oxygen and nitrogen in the air are sufficient to account for the scattering.  The case was finally settled by Einstein in 1911, who calculated the detailed formula for the scattering of light from molecules; and this was found to be in agreement with experiment.  He was even able to use the calculation as a further verification of Avogadro's number when compared with observation.  The molecules are able to scatter light because the electromagnetic field of the light waves induces electric dipole moments in the molecules.

Why not violet?

If shorter wavelengths are scattered most strongly, then there is a puzzle as to why the sky does not appear violet, the colour with the shortest visible wavelength.  The spectrum of light emission from the sun is not constant at all wavelengths, and additionally is absorbed by the high atmosphere, so there is less violet in the light.  Our eyes are also less sensitive to violet.  That's part of the answer; yet a rainbow shows that there remains a significant amount of visible light coloured indigo and violet beyond the blue.  The rest of the answer to this puzzle lies in the way our vision works.  We have three types of colour receptors, or cones, in our retina.  They are called red, blue and green because they respond most strongly to light at those wavelengths.  As they are stimulated in different proportions, our visual system constructs the colours we see.

Response curves for the three types of cone in the human eye
When we look up at the sky, the red cones respond to the small amount of scattered red light, but also less strongly to orange and yellow wavelengths.  The green cones respond to yellow and the more strongly scattered green and green-blue wavelengths.  The blue cones are stimulated by colours near blue wavelengths, which are very strongly scattered.  If there were no indigo and violet in the spectrum, the sky would appear blue with a slight green tinge.  However, the most strongly scattered indigo and violet wavelengths stimulate the red cones slightly as well as the blue, which is why these colours appear blue with an added red tinge.  The net effect is that the red and green cones are stimulated about equally by the light from the sky, while the blue is stimulated more strongly.  This combination accounts for the pale sky blue colour.  It may not be a coincidence that our vision is adjusted to see the sky as a pure hue.  We have evolved to fit in with our environment; and the ability to separate natural colours most clearly is probably a survival advantage.

A multicoloured sunset over the Firth of Forth in Scotland.

Sunsets

When the air is clear the sunset will appear yellow, because the light from the sun has passed a long distance through air and some of the blue light has been scattered away.  If the air is polluted with small particles, natural or otherwise, the sunset will be more red.  Sunsets over the sea may also be orange, due to salt particles in the air, which are effective Tyndall scatterers.  The sky around the sun is seen reddened, as well as the light coming directly from the sun.  This is because all light is scattered relatively well through small angles—but blue light is then more likely to be scattered twice or more over the greater distances, leaving the yellow, red and orange colours.

A blue haze over the mountains of Les Vosges in France.

Blue Haze and Blue Moon

Clouds and dust haze appear white because they consist of particles larger than the wavelengths of light, which scatter all wavelengths equally (Mie scattering).  But sometimes there might be other particles in the air that are much smaller.  Some mountainous regions are famous for their blue haze.  Aerosols of terpenes from the vegetation react with ozone in the atmosphere to form small particles about 200 nm across, and these particles scatter the blue light.  A forest fire or volcanic eruption may occasionally fill the atmosphere with fine particles of 500—800 nm across, being the right size to scatter red light.  This gives the opposite to the usual Tyndall effect, and may cause the moon to have a blue tinge since the red light has been scattered out.  This is a very rare phenomenon, occurring literally once in a blue moon.

Opalescence

The Tyndall effect is responsible for some other blue coloration's in nature: such as blue eyes, the opalescence of some gem stones, and the colour in the blue jay's wing.  The colours can vary according to the size of the scattering particles.  When a fluid is near its critical temperature and pressure, tiny density fluctuations are responsible for a blue coloration known as critical opalescence.  People have also copied these natural effects by making ornamental glasses impregnated with particles, to give the glass a blue sheen.  But not all blue colouring in nature is caused by scattering.  Light under the sea is blue because water absorbs longer wavelength of light through distances over about 20 metres.  When viewed from the beach, the sea is also blue because it reflects the sky, of course.  Some birds and butterflies get their blue colorations by diffraction effects.

Why is the Mars sky red?

Images sent back from the Viking Mars landers in 1977 and from Pathfinder in 1997 showed a red sky seen from the Martian surface.  This was due to red iron-rich dusts thrown up in the dust storms occurring from time to time on Mars.  The colour of the Mars sky will change according to weather conditions.  It should be blue when there have been no recent storms, but it will be darker than the earth's daytime sky because of Mars' thinner atmosphere.

AURORA



Job 37:21

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Job 37:21

And now men see not the bright light which is in the clouds: but the wind passeth, and cleanseth them.


An aurora (plural: aurorae or auroras) is a natural light display in the sky particularly in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions, caused by the collision of energetic charged particles with atoms in the high altitude atmosphere (thermosphere). The charged particles originate in the magnetosphere and solar wind and, on Earth, are directed by the Earth's magnetic field into the atmosphere. Aurora is classified as diffuse or discrete aurora. Most aurorae occur in a band known as the auroral zone which is typically 3° to 6° in latitudinal extent and at all local times or longitudes. The auroral zone is typically 10° to 20° from the magnetic pole defined by the axis of the Earth's magnetic dipole. During a geomagnetic storm, the auroral zone will expand to lower latitudes. The diffuse aurora is a featureless glow in the sky which may not be visible to the naked eye even on a dark night and defines the extent of the auroral zone. The discrete aurora are sharply defined features within the diffuse aurora which vary in brightness from just barely visible to the naked eye to bright enough to read a newspaper at night. Discrete aurorae are usually observed only in the night sky because they are not as bright as the sunlit sky. Aurorae occur occasionally poleward of the auroral zone as diffuse patchesor arcs (polar cap arcs) which are generally invisible to the naked eye.

In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis (or the northern lights), named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for the north wind, Boreas, by Pierre Gassendi in 1621. Auroras seen near the magnetic pole may be high overhead, but from farther away, they illuminate the northern horizon as a greenish glow or sometimes a faint red, as if the Sun were rising from an unusual direction. Discrete aurorae often display magnetic field lines or curtain-like structures, and can change within seconds or glow unchanging for hours, most often in fluorescent green. The aurora borealis most often occurs near the equinoctes. The northern lights have had a number of names throughout history. The Cree call this phenomenon the "Dance of the Spirits". In Europe, in the Middle Ages, the auroras were commonly believed a sign from God.
Its southern counterpart, the aurora australis (or the southern lights), has almost identical features to the aurora borealis and changes simultaneously with changes in the northern auroral zone and is visible from high southern latitudes in Antarctica, South America, New Zealand and Australia.

TOTAL DARKNESS IN THE DEEP OF THE SEA


Job 38:8-9
Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,

After the aphotic zone, there’s complete darkness. From 1,000 meters below the surface, all the way to the sea floor, no sunlight penetrates the darkness; and because photosynthesis can’t take place, there are no plants, either. Animals that live in the abyssal zone feed on detritus raining down from above—or on each other. And sometimes they make their own light; certain species of deep sea fish and jellyfish have special light-producing cells.

the bottom of the ocean, there is no natural light. The pilots plot the position of the sub with both standard navigation equipment and with special topographical (or 3-D) maps that are made by side scan sonar. To find a specific site, the pilots use the 3-D maps, but they must also rely on visual clues. Visual work is difficult because they only have the light of the sub. Imagine looking for rock samples on land in total darkness, with only a flashlight—things seem to suddenly loom out of the blackness, and it’s hard to see enough to find what you’re looking for. These folks are often trying to find a single small probe, only a couple meters in length, or a specific spot they’ve visited before. Talk about a needle in a haystack! So it’s quite helpful to have a pilot who knows the area well; it’s a bit like when you hike—you look at the map, but even the best map doesn’t show the individual trees that you recognize as you become familiar with a specific place

The oceans are divided into two broad realms; the pelagic and the benthic. Pelagic refers to the open water in which swimming and floating organisms live. Organisms living there are called the pelagos. From the shallowest to the deepest, biologists divide the pelagic into the epipelagic (less than 200 meters, where there can be photosynthesis), the mesopelagic (200 - 1,000 meters, the "twilight" zone with faint sunlight but no photosynthesis), the bathypelagic (1,000 - 4,000 meters), the abyssopelagic (4,000 - 6,000 meters) and the deepest, the hadopelagic (the deep trenches below 6,000 meters to about 11,000 m or 36,000 feet deep). The last three zones have no sunlight at all. 

Benthic zones are defined as the bottom sediments and other surfaces of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos. They live in a close relationship with the bottom of the sea, with many of them permanently attached to it, some burrowed in it, others swimming just above it. In oceanic environments, benthic habitats are zoned by depth, generally corresponding to the comparable pelagic zones: the intertidal (where sea meets land, with no pelagic equivalent), the subtidal (the continental shelves, to about 200 m), the bathyal (generally the continental slopes to 4,000 m), the abyssal (most of the deep ocean seafloor, 4,000 - 6,000 m), and the hadal (the deep trenches 6,000 to 11,000 m). 

There are several types of deep benthic surfaces, each having different life forms. First, most of the deep seafloor consists of mud (very fine sediment particles) or "ooze" (defined as mud with a high percentage of organic remains) due to the accumulation of pelagic organisms that sink after they die. [Unlike the shoreline, sandy habitats are rarely found in the deep sea because sand particles, created by wave action on coral and rocks at shorelines, are too heavy to be carried by currents to the deep.] Second, benthic areas too steep for sediment to stick are rocky. Rocky areas are found on the flanks of islands, seamounts, rocky banks, on mid-ocean ridges and their rift valleys, and some parts of continental slopes. At the mid-ocean ridges, where magma wells up and pushes seafloor tectonic plates apart, even flat surfaces are rocky because these areas are too geologically new to have accumulated much mud or ooze. Third, in some areas certain chemical reactions produce unique benthic formations. The best known of these formations are the "smoker" chimneys created by hydrothermal vents, which are described in detail below.

BIBLE ACCOUNT PROVE THE SCIENTIFIC FACTS :

Darkness was upon the face of the deep After the aphotic zone, there’s complete darkness. From 1,000 meters below the surface, all the way to the sea floor.

And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.(Genesis 1:2)

Exploration of these zones has presented a challenge to scientists for decades and much remains to be discovered. However, advances in technology are increasingly allowing scientists to learn more about the strange and mysterious life that exists in this harsh environment. Life in the deep sea must withstand total darkness (except for non-solar light such as bioluminescence ), extreme cold, and great pressure. To learn more about deep-sea marine life, sophisticated data collection devices have been developed to collect observations and even geological and biological samples from the deep. First, advances in observational equipment such as fiber optics that use LED light and low light cameras has increased our understanding of the behaviors and characteristics of deep sea creatures in their natural habitat. Such equipment may be deployed on permanent subsea stations connected to land by fiber optic cables, or on "lander" devices which drop to the seafloor and which are later retrieved (typically after a radio command activates the dropping of ballast so the lander may float up.) Second, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) have been used underwater since the 1950s. ROVs are basically unmanned submarine robots with umbilical cables used to transmit data between the vehicle and researcher for remote operation in areas where diving is constrained by physical hazards. ROVs are often fitted with video and still cameras as well as with mechanical tools such as mechanical arms for specimen retrieval and measurements. Other unmanned submarine robots include AUVs (autonomous undersea vehicles) that operate without a cable, and the USA's new Nereus , a hybrid unmanned sub which can switch from ROV to AUV mode and which is currently the world's only unmanned submarine capable of reaching the deepest trenches. Third, manned deep sea submersibles are also used to explore the ocean's depths. Alvin is an American deep sea submersible built in 1964 that has been used extensively over the past 4 decades to shed light on the black ocean depths. Like ROVs, it has cameras and mechanical arms. This sub, which carries 3 people (typically a pilot and 2 scientists), has been used for more than 4,000 dives reaching a maximum depth of more than 4,500 m. France, Japan and Russia have similar manned scientific submersibles that can reach somewhat greater depths, while China is currently building one to reach 7,000 m.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

STD




[Prov.5:10-11]
Lest strangers be filled with thy wealth; and thy labours be in the house of a stranger; And thou mourn at the last, when thy flesh and thy body are consumed,


Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years.

BLACK HOLE




[Psalms 19:1-6]
(To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.) The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.


"CHAMBER" OR A HOLE IN HEAVENS or WINDOWS IN HEAVEN is THE BLACK HOLE

[2 Kings 7:19]
And that lord answered the man of God, and said, Now, behold, if the LORD should make windows in heaven, might such a thing be? And he said, Behold, thou shalt see it with thine eyes, but shalt not eat thereof.


A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Quantum mechanics predicts that black holes emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater.


Objects whose gravity field is too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was not fully appreciated for another four decades. Long considered a mathematical curiosity, it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed black holes were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.


Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses may form. There is general consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies.


Despite its invisible interior, the presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter and with light and other electromagnetic radiation. Matter falling onto a black hole can form an accretion disk heated by friction, forming some of the brightest objects in the universe. If there are other stars orbiting a black hole, their orbit can be used to determine its mass and location. This data can be used to exclude possible alternatives (such as neutron stars). In this way, astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems, and established that the core of our Milky Way galaxy contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses.

CHYSOPELEA


Isaiah 30:6

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Isaiah 30:6

The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.


Chrysopelea, or more commonly known as the flying snake, is a genus that belongs to the family Colubridae. Flying snakes are mildly venomous, though they are considered harmless because their toxicity is not dangerous to humans.Their range is in Southeast Asia (the mainland, Greater and Lesser Sundas, Maluku, and the Philippines), southernmost China, India, and Sri Lanka.

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

GALLEON TRADE





[Psalms 107:23]
They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters;

[Revelation 18:17]
For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,


The Acapulco or Manila galleons were Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). The name changed reflecting the city that the ship was sailing from.Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. The Mexican War of Independence and the Napoleonic Wars put a permanent stop to the galleons. Though service was not inaugurated until almost 60 years after the death of Christopher Columbus, the Manila galleons constitute the fulfillment of Columbus' dream of sailing west to go east to bring the riches of the Indies to Spain and the rest of Europe.

MAGELLAN VOYAGE


Psalms 48:4-7

"Tarshish תַּרְשִׁישׁ occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings. One of the most recurring is that Tarshish is a place, probably a city or country, that is far from Israel by sea where trade occurs with Israel and Phoenicia. The Septuagint, the Vulgate and the Targum of Jonathan render this as Carthage. But other biblical commentators read is as Tarsus in ancient Spain.

"Tarshih " is an Ancient Tarsus in Ancient Spain "

"Trinidad ,San Antonio,Conception ,Santiago ,Trinidad "Thou breakest the SHIPS OF TARSHISH with an east Wind. 

Victoria (or Nao Victoria, as well as Vittoria) was a Spanish carrack and the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world. The Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, and after his demise during the voyage, by Juan Sebastián Elcano. The expedition began with five ships but the Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage. Magellan was killed in the Philippines. This ship, along with the four others, was given to Magellan by King Charles I of Spain. Victoria was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V in order to be granted full access to the Spice Islands. Victoria was an 85 tons ship with a crew of 42.

The four other ships were Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), San Antonio (120 tons, crew 60), Concepcion (90 tons, crew 45), and Santiago (75 tons, crew 32). Trinidad, Magellan's flagship, Concepcion, and Santiago were wrecked or scuttled; San Antonio deserted the expedition before the Straits of Magellan and returned to Europe on her own.

Victoria was rated a carrack or nao (ship), as were all the others except Trinidad, which was a caravel.

INVENTION OF HELICOPTER


Psalms 109:23

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Psalms 109:23

I am gone like the shadow when it declineth: I am tossed up and down as the locust. 


A helicopter (informally known as a "chopper" or a "helo") is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would usually not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform.


The word helicopter is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix/helik- (ἕλιξ) = "twisted, curved"and pteron (πτερόν) = "wing".
Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built.Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration. Tandem rotor helicopters are also in widespread use, due to their better payload capacity. Quadrotor helicopters and other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

SCIENCE OF IRIDOLOGY







[Matthew 6:22-23]
The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!

Iridology (also known as iridodiagnosis or iridiagnosi is an alternative medicine technique whose proponents claim that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health. Practitioners match their observations to iris charts, which divide the iris into zones that correspond to specific parts of the human body. Iridologists see the eyes as "windows" into the body's state of health.

Iridologists use the charts to distinguish between healthy systems and organs in the body and those that are overactive, inflamed, or distressed. Iridologists believe this information demonstrates a patient's susceptibility towards certain illnesses, reflects past medical problems, or predicts later health problems.

As opposed to evidence-based medicine, Iridology is not supported by quality research studies and is widely considered pseudoscience. Iris texture is a phenotypical feature which develops during gestation and remains unchanged after birth. The stability of iris structures is the foundation of the biometric technology which uses iris recognition for identification purposes.

FIGHTER PLANES OF WORLD WAR II


[Deuteronomy 28:49]The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand;


The Best Fighter Planes of World War II
The Bf 109, Spitfire, FW 190, P-51, Yak-3, A6M Zero, P-38, F4U and Ki-84

By Chuck Hawks

When I started this project, three methods of approaching the subject came immediately to mind. I could examine the aircraft by year (i.e.: 1939 = Bf 109, 1940 = Spitfire, 1941 = Zero, 1942 = FW 190, 1943 = P 47, 1944 = P 51, 1945 = Me 262), by country of origin (UK, U.S., Ger., Jap., Italy, U.S.S.R.), or by theater (European and Pacific). I chose the latter approach, further subdivided by "early" and "later" periods (Due to the rapid advance of technology, the best fighter early in the war was never the best fighter late in the war).
Some other criteria had to be imposed. To qualify as one of the very best, an airplane had to make a significant impact as an air superiority fighter. For example, the Me 262 jet fighter was arguably the best fighter plane of WW II, particularly deadly against American heavy bombers, but only small numbers ever saw combat and it became operational so late in the war that it had only a minimal impact. So I have chosen to leave it out.
The British Mosquito was built in numbers and had a significant impact on the war, but was most famous as a ground attack and reconnaissance aircraft, rather than as an air superiority fighter; ditto the Typhoon. Neither of those fine planes will be dealt with here.
So the fighters I am going to pick as "best" for their period and theater of war must have: (1) been built in significant numbers and (2) been dominant in the air superiority role. Here are my choices.
European Theater, Early Period
In the European Theater of Operations, early years, there were two absolute standout fighter planes. Both were severely limited in range, but in a dogfight they reigned supreme in the ETO. Of course, I am talking about the British Supermarine Spitfire and the German Messerschmitt Bf 109.
The former was designed by R. J. Mitchell and the latter by Willie Messerschmitt. They were the standout air superiority fighters of the early years of the war in Europe and the leading members of the cast that fought the most famous air battle of them all, the Battle of Britain (not to slight the Hawker Hurricane, designed by Sidney Camm, which actually out numbered the Spitfire on the British side of the famous battle and scored more victories over German airplanes.
Messerschmitt Bf 109
The prototype Messerschmitt 109 first flew in 1935. It was a low wing, all metal monoplane of the type that became the mainstay of all sides in WW II. The Bf 109 was basically the smallest airframe that Willy Messerschmitt could devise attached to the most powerful engine available. This proved to be a very successful formula that could be progressively upgraded.
However, the type was not without flaws. Notable among these were its cramped cockpit, restricted rearward visibility and narrow track undercariage that made ground handling tricky. Another problem that plagued the type throughout its production life was that its control forces became progressively heavier as speed increased. Manuverability was very good at low and medium speed, but deteriorated greatly at high speed. The type's short range was to prove its downfall on both the Western and Eastern Fronts, severely limiting its tactical utility.
The Messerschmitt 109 fighter was flown by many of the top scoring Luftwaffe fighter pilots during WW II. The top fighter pilot of all time, Erich Hartmann (352 victories), and the second highest scoring fighter pilot of all time, Gerhard Barkhorn (301 victories), both flew the Bf 109. So did the first "General of Fighters," Werner Molders (115 victories), and his famous successor in that job, Adolf Galland (104 victories). The top scoring German ace of the Western front, Hans-Joachim Marseille (158 victories), also flew the Bf 109.
By 1937 the Luftwaffe had been equipped with Messerschmitt Bf 109B models, the first production version. The "B" model had a top speed of about 290 m.p.h. It was powered by a 680 h.p., inverted V-12 Jumo 210 engine. The small, fast Messerschmitt fighter first proved its worth in Spain during the Civil War. There the Condor Legion's 109B's quickly proved their superiority over the Russian I-15 and I-16 fighters used by the Communists.
By 1938, the "D" model had arrived. This model had a top speed of about 304 m.p.h. at altitude. Before the end of that year, the German fighter squadrons were entirely equipped with "D" models. During the Blitzkrieg across Poland, Belgium, Holland and France in 1939-40, the 109D bore the brunt of the air fighting and proved to be more than a match for the first line fighters of those nations, quickly achieving aerial superiority. By then, the latest version of the 109D had received the long awaited DB 600 engine and top speed was up to about 320 m.p.h.
The Messerschmitt model that bore the brunt of the subsequent Battle of Britain was the Bf 109E. It started coming into service in 1939 and by 1940 was the front line Luftwaffe fighter. Power for the "Emil" was the Daimler-Benz DB 601A, a supercharged, 12-cylinder inverted Vee engine with fuel injection. It developed 1,100 hp at 2,400 r.p.m. This was one of the finest engines of its time and it gave the "E" a top speed of 354 m.p.h. and a best climb rate of 2,990 ft./min.
The 109E compared very closely in performance to the British Spitfire I and II, the premier British fighters of the Battle of Britain. Its main drawback as a bomber escort was its limited range, which led directly to the British triumph in the Battle. Purely as a fighter, the Bf 109E was second to none.
By the early part of 1941, German squadrons were receiving the Bf 109F, powered by the up rated DB 601N, which incorporated a power boost system for brief emergency use. This engine was nominally rated for 1,200 hp. The "F" model probably represents the high water mark for the 109 fighter. Its more streamlined nose, retractable tail wheel, rounded wing tips (rather than the traditional "clipped" tips of the earlier models), cantilever horizontal stabilizer and 900 r.p.m. 20mm cannon made it, briefly, the best fighter in the air. Maneuverability was enhanced and top speed was up to 382 m.p.h. at 17,000 ft. Best rate of climb was a sizzling 3,640 ft/min. The "F" model was Gerd Barkhorn's favorite model. He is quoted as saying that it was lighter than other 109 variants and could turn and climb "like hell."
The next version, the "G" or Gustav, first appeared at the end of 1942. This was to became the most numerous ME 109 model of all, produced in many variations, but the basic design was starting to show its age. Performance was again up (max. speed slightly over 400 m.p.h. at altitude), but the addition of bigger machine guns and their ammunition, as well as other various improvements for which the airframe was not designed, caused bulges to appear in unlikely places on the cowling of the aircraft (hence its slang name "the bulge"). Power was provided by a bored out DB 601 called the DB 605 and this engine, which had some early reliability problems, was rated at 1,475 hp at takeoff. The Gustav was used on all fronts for the rest of the war, although later models did appear. Not only an air superiority fighter, the Gustav also performed ground attack, bomber destroyer and photo recon missions.
The final Messerschmitt production variant was the "K," deliveries of which began in September of 1944. The "K" was powered by an 1,800 hp DB 605D engine (2000 hp with methanol-water injection) that gave it a top speed of 452 m.p.h. at 19,685 feet. Best climb rate was a sensational 4,820 ft./min. Armament was two 13mm cowl mounted machine guns and one engine mounted 30mm cannon firing through the propeller boss. Two additional 20mm cannons were mounted beneath the wings in the K-4/R4 variant.
The "K" was the final effort to clean up the aerodynamics of the Bf 109 and standardize the factory and field improvements that had appeared in previous models. In this it was similar to the previous "F" model, which it resembled. Gone were the unsightly cowl bulges of the Gustav. The most numerous variant, the "K-4," of which over 700 were produced, featured a pressurized cockpit and the improved visibility "Galland" canopy. It was a formidable fighter, comparable to the best Allied fighters of the period. The "K" was to outlive the Luftwaffe, serving in the Spanish Air Force into the 1960's (by which time it had been re-equipped with Rolls Royce engines!).
The basic specifications of the Bf 109E follow (from The Fighter Aircraft Pocketbook by Roy Cross. For the sake of consistency, subsequent specifications will also be taken from this same source whenever possible).
Wingspan: 32ft 6in
Length: 28ft 9in
Height: 8 ft. 1 in.
Wing area: 176.5 sq. ft
Engine: DB 601A, 12 cyl. Vee, 1,100 h.p.
Max speed: 354.2 mph at 16,400 ft
Best climb: 2,990 ft/min at 13,150 ft
Climb to: 9,840 ft., 3 min.; 19,865 ft., 6.3 min.
Service ceiling: 30,100 ft
Combat range: 412 miles at 16,400 ft
Endurance: 1.1 hours
Empty weight: 4,431 lb..
Loaded weight: 5,600 lb..
Armament: 2-7.9mm fuselage guns, 2-20mm wing cannon (1/wing).

Supermarine Spitfire
The other "best" fighter of the early period of the European war was the Spitfire. The Spitfire proved, like the Bf 109, to be a very adaptable airplane and in various versions it served throughout the war. Naturally, most of the famous British aces of WW II flew the Spitfire. These included the top scoring British ace of the war, Group Captain "Johnny" Johnson (38 victories), and the legless ace and hero of the Battle of Britain, Douglas Bader. Bader flew with two artificial limbs and he scored 9 of his 20 kills from a Spitfire cockpit, the balance in Hurricanes.
The prototype Spitfire was built in 1936. Like the Bf 109 and all of the other "best" fighters I will discuss, the Spitfire was an all metal stressed-skin monoplane. This was new technology at that time and many production problems had to be solved, which resulted in considerable delays before the new fighter began reaching RAF squadrons.
The Spitfire was a low drag design that could be progressively improved to keep pace with foreign developments. By all accounts, it was a real pilot's airplane. She proved easy to fly and forgiving, a fighter without vices. This was an important consideration during the war, when pilot training was put into high gear and "stick time" in training reduced.
The first production version of the Spitfire was the Mk. I, which entered squadron service in mid-1938. When the war came in 1939, the RAF insisted in holding the bulk of their modern monoplane fighters in Britain. No Spitfires were sent to France. This proved to be a good decision as, after the fall of France, RAF fighter command could still deploy about 620 Hurricanes and Spitfires to meet the Luftwaffe's 800 Bf 109s.
The main variant of the Spitfire Mk. IA was powered by the famous Rolls Royce V-12 Merlin II engine. This produced 1,230 hp and drove a two bladed wooden propeller, giving the early Spitfire a top level speed of about 360 mph and a best climb rate of 2,530 ft./min. By the time of the battle of Britain, a three-bladed constant speed propeller, which markedly improved climb and acceleration, had been fitted.
Typical armament for this period was 8-.303 cal Browning machine guns, four in each wing. Some Spitfires were armed with a 20mm cannon in each wing, plus a couple of machine guns. These were called Mk. IB's.
Either way, their performance was closely similar to that of the Bf 109E, with the Spitfire being perhaps slightly faster and a little more maneuverable and the Messerschmitt being faster in the dive and with a superior roll rate. The 109 held a performance edge above 20,000 feet.
In 1940 the Mk. II began to appear, replacing the Mk. I in early 1941. The Mk. II was powered by a 1,240 h.p. Merlin XII that gave it a top speed almost identical to the Mk. I (354 mph at 17,550 ft), but a higher rate of climb (3,025 ft./min).
It is worth mentioning that the early Spitfires had SU carburetors, not fuel injection, and the engines would quit for lack of fuel (followed immediately by flooding) if the aircraft pulled negative g's during a maneuver or was flown upside down. This problem was not fully solved until improved pressure carburetors were adopted in 1943 for the late production Mk. V and subsequent models, although the stop-gap "Tilly Orifice," a simple flow restrictor invented by Miss Beatrice (Tilly) Shilling, was retrofitted to ameliorate the problem in early 1941.
Mk. II's were armed with either eight machine guns, or a mix of four machine guns and two cannons. All Spitfires of this period had the signature elliptical plan wings and were (in my opinion) among the most graceful of all fighter planes.
History records that the Spitfires (and Hurricanes) prevailed in the Battle of Britain. Their primary shortcoming was their short range. This was not a problem while they were serving in the interceptor role during the Battle of Britain, but it became a serious fault when the RAF went over to the offensive.
Later marks of Spitfire included the Mk. V of 1941, which for the first time introduced the "universal" wing that could accommodate either machine guns or cannons in various combinations and the option of clipped wing tips to increase the roll rate. The Mk. V had a top speed of up to 374 mph and the best rate of climb was 2,900 ft./min. The Mk. V was produced in large numbers, but was hard pressed by the improved Bf 109F and the new FW 190A. It was a very nice airplane to fly, adequately powerful and responsive; it probably represents the high water mark of Spitfire development.
The next big production model was the Mk. IX, a Mk. V airframe with a new two-stage, two-speed supercharged Merlin 70 engine that developed 1,655 h.p. at 10,000 ft. This new engine was really intended for the new Spitfire Mk. VIII airframe, but the press of events forced its adoption in the older airframe. The result, however, was quite satisfactory. Top speed was raised to 415 m.p.h. at 27,800 ft. The sustained climb rate to 20,000' jumped to 3,509 ft./min.
The Mk. IX started to enter service around the middle of 1942 and proved able to meet the improved German fighters on an essentially equal footing. The Mk. IX was approximately contemporary to the Bf 109G series and, like that fighter, served for the rest of the war.
The Mk VIII finally came along in 1943, incorporating many detail improvements, including better streamlining and a fully retractable tail wheel. Best climb rate was 3,790 ft./min. This version was used mostly in the Far East.
The final major models were the Mk. XIV of 1944 and the Mk. 22 of 1945. The Mk XIV was a Mk VIII airframe with a Rolls Royce Griffon 65 engine, developing 2,050 h.p., good for a top speed at altitude of 448 mph. It drove a five bladed propeller and gave the Mk. XIV an improved service ceiling and enhanced high altitude performance. Best climb rate was up to over 5,000 ft./min. Later Mk XIV's also had a "teardrop" style canopy to improve all-around visibility.
The Mk. XIV was, however, less maneuverable than the earlier models and more of a handful to fly. During Israel's War of Independence against the Arab League in 1948, Israeli fighter pilots flew both Mark IX and Mark XIV Spits and they preferred the Mark IX, because of its superior dog fighting ability.
The Mks. 21, 22 and 24 were the last Spitfires. These were fitted with a teardrop canopy and for the first time the wing was redesigned. The new wing was similar in plan, but was stronger, carried more fuel, housed a longer landing gear (which allowed a larger diameter propeller) and carried four 20mm cannon. Speed was up to 450 mph and best climb rate up to 4,900 ft./min. The Spitfire had reached the end of its long career. The future would belong to more modern fighters, but by this time the war was ending and the jet age had begun. For more about the Spitfire and the Royal Navy's similar Seafire, see my article "The Supermarine Spitfire and Seafire."
Following are the basic specifications for the Spitfire IIA of September 1940.
Wingspan: 36ft 10in
Length: 29ft 9in
Height: 8 ft. 10 in.
Wing area: 242 sq. ft.
Engine: R.R. Merlin XII, 12 cyl. Vee, 1,236 h.p.
Max speed: 354 m.p.h. at 17,559 ft.
Best climb: 3,025 ft/min at 12,800 ft.
Climb to: 10,000 ft., 3.4 min; 20,000 ft., 7 min.
Service ceiling: 37,600 ft.
Combat range: 395 miles
Empty weight: 4,783 lb..
Loaded weight: 6,172 lb..
Armament: 8-.303in Browning MG (4/wing)

European Theater, Later Period
After the first couple of years, in the European theater, things become more complicated. During the 1939, 1940, and 1941, the Spitfire and Messerschmitt Bf 109 were clearly the dominant fighters. However, as the war wore on, many new designs entered combat.
In 1942 (really beginning late in 1941) the Focke-Wulf 190 appeared in numbers and immediately established a measure of superiority over the Spitfire Mk. V, already hard pressed by the Bf 109F. In 1942, the first year of the war for the U.S., American P-39 and P-40 fighters were generally out performed by the German Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf fighters and things looked a bit bleak for the Allies. However, when the Spitfire Mk. IX and the P-38 started to make their presence felt, things began to improve for the Allies.
In the Spring of 1943, the P-47B went into operation in England. The Focke-Wulf 190, up until now the premier fighter in the theater, was suddenly hard pressed by the big American fighter, particularly at high altitude. In mid-1943 the much improved P-38J started to arrive and the pressure on the Germans increased. The arrival at the end of 1943 of the P-51B, the long range escort fighter the Americans so desperately needed, marked the beginning of the end for the Luftwaffe. Able to escort the bombers all the way to Berlin and back, the Mustang left the Luftwaffe no place to regroup and train. The P-51 did to the Luftwaffe what the Bf 109 did not have the range to do to the RAF earlier in the war.
So while all of the above fighters played an important part in the war, it was the P-51 that turned out to be decisive. The Americans could have won their daylight air war over Germany with the improved P-38J and L or P-47D, both of which appeared in 1944, but in fact it was the P-51, more than any other single fighter, that did it. So it seems only fair to examine first the FW 190 and then the P-51 Mustang, as the two successive "bests" of the later part of the European war.
Focke-Wulf FW 190
The Focke-Wulf 190 was designed by Kurt Tank and was a nasty surprise to the RAF in September 1941. Only a little over 200 were completed in 1941, but in 1942 1,850 were built, which amounted to about 40% of German single seat fighter production. The new fighter was powered by a BMW 14-cylinder twin row air-cooled radial engine. This engine put out 1,760 hp and, coupled with the aircraft's forgiving handling qualities, gave the early FW 190A models a measure of superiority over the RAF's Spitfire Mk V, particularly in speed at low and medium altitudes.
Many German aces flew the FW 190. An example would be Gunther Rall, the 3rd highest scoring ace of the War (275 victories). Between 1939 and 1945, Rall flew the Bf 109, the FW 190, the "long nose" FW 190D and the Me 262 jet.
The FW 190 was known as a "pilots airplane," meaning she was a sweet ship to fly, light and easy on the controls (unlike the Bf 109, which was reputedly a handful). Its speed, climb, dive and roll rate were superior to the Spitfire Mk V. There was also excellent armor protection for the pilot. It had a wide track landing gear, which made it much less prone to ground loops than the Bf 109.
The FW 190 was also heavily armed. Typical armament, beginning with the FW 190A-3, was two 7.9mm machine guns in the engine cowling, two Mauser 20mm cannon in the wing roots (each of which could fire 700 rounds per minute, much faster than the equivalent British cannon), plus two slower firing (450 rounds per minute) Oerlikon 20mm cannon farther out in the wings. The total of two machine guns and four 20mm cannon represented a lot of firepower, the most of any contemporary fighter.
The first production Models were the FW 190A-1 and A-2. The FW 190A-3 of early 1942 basically standardized the engine and armament. This was the model that made the FW 190's reputation as a world class air superiority fighter.
Later in 1942 the A-4 model came along. This model had a methanol-water injection system for the engine which boosted power for a 10 minute period on demand and substantially improved performance at the lower altitudes. A new radio was also fitted. Other A-4 models included a night fighter version, and a ground attack version. There was also an extended range version with racks under the wings and fuselage for drop tanks or munitions
The 1943 version was the FW 190A-5. The main change was to move the engine 6 inches foreword in order to allow more flexibility for under wing stores. The primary variants of the A-5 included air superiority, bomber destroyer and ground attack versions. War emergency horsepower was up to 2,050 in the 801D engine.
The A-6 version got a new wing structure and replaced the slower firing outer wing cannons with faster firing Mauser cannons. Performance remained about the same as the A-5. The A-7 again increased firepower by replacing the .32 caliber (8mm) nose machine guns with more powerful 13mm (.51 cal) machine guns.
The FW 190A-8 of 1944 incorporated other improvements, including increased fuel capacity for longer range and an improved power boost system to improve high altitude performance. Speed was 405 m.p.h. at best altitude. Best climb was down to 2,756 ft./min. at 16,100 ft. The basic BMW radial engine had clearly reached its maximum performance limits. What was needed was a new power plant to keep the FW 190 competitive with the latest Allied fighters.
Experiments mating the FW 190 airframe with liquid-cooled Daimler Benz and Junkers inverted V-12 engines had started back in 1941. By 1944 the need for more performance was acute and the FW 190D was the result.
This much altered fighter used the standard Focke-Wulf wings and tail plane with an extended rear fuselage and a longer and heavier Junkers Jumo 213 engine. This brought the top speed up to 436 m.p.h. in the D-9 model (best climb rate was up to 3,642 ft./min.), and 458.5 m.p.h. (at 38,080 ft!) in the D-12 model.
These "long nose" models were reportedly more of a handful to fly, but still handled fairly well. They kept the Focke-Wulf competitive in performance with the best Allied fighters until the end of the war. For more information about the FW 190-series, see my article "The Focke-Wulf FW 190."
The following Specifications are for the famous FW 190A-3 model, of early 1942.
Wingspan: 34 ft. 5 in.
Length: 29 ft. 1 in.
Height: 12 ft.
Wing area: 197 sq. ft.
Engine: BMW 801D 14 cylinder radial, 1,760 hp. at 3,000 r.p.m. at 18,000 ft.
Max speed: 395 m.p.h. at 17,000 ft.; 390 m.p.h. at 20,000 ft.
Best climb: 3,280 ft./min. at 17,500 ft.
Climb to: 16,500 ft., 4.75 min.; 18,000 ft., 6.25 min.
Service ceiling: 37,000 ft.
Range: 820 miles max. economy cruise
Max weight: 9,200 lb.. (8,580 normal)
Armament: 2-7.9mm MG, 4-20mm cannon

North American P-51 Mustang
Many top E.T.O. aces flew the P-51 Mustang. These included Captain Don Gentile (35 victories), Captain John Godfrey (31 victories), Colonel Eagleston (23 victories), Major James Howard (the only American ace in both theaters of the war--6 victories in China flying P-40's and 6 victories in Europe flying P-51's), Chuck Yeager (who later became the first man to break the sound barrier) and Colonel Donald Blakeslee (15 victories and C.O. of the famous 4th Fighter Group). The 4th FG destroyed over 1,000 German aircraft, more than any other American fighter group in WW II.
The Mustang story began in 1940 when the British contacted North American Aviation with a request to build fighters for the RAF. North American was willing, and they offered to design and build a new fighter that would meet British requirements, and be easy to mass produce. In only 100 days NAA rolled out the first prototype Mustang. By November 1941 the first of over 600 aircraft produced under British contract were delivered to the RAF.
The new fighter incorporated some advanced ideas, in particular a laminar flow wing of thin cross section, which allowed the Mustang to avoid most of the "compressibility" dive problems that plagued many other high performance fighters of the time. Two of the first ten Mustangs built were taken to Wright Field, at Dayton Ohio, for testing by the AAF, which designated them XP-51.
The 1,150 hp. Allison F-series V-12 powered the early Mustang models. This resulted in poor high altitude performance, so the RAF used their Mustang I (P-51) and II (P-51A) models for low altitude ground attack and reconnaissance duties.
The Mustang I had a top speed of 370 m.p.h. at 15,000 ft. Best climb at 11,300 ft. was 1,980 ft./min. An assortment of .30 and .50 caliber machine guns were carried, but the Mustang IA was armed with 4-20mm cannon. Handling and maneuverability were good. Like the FW 190, the P-51 was a pilot's airplane.
P-51A (Mustang II) production was divided between America and Britain. This model standardized armament as 4-.50 cal MG. (two per wing). There were ground attack versions of the P 51A in U.S. service, designated A-36A, which served the AAF in the North African campaign. There were also specialized photo reconnaissance versions of all major Mustang models, the F-6 series.
The decision was made to mass produce the outstanding Merlin engine under license in the United States. The P-51B and C models (Mustang III's in Britian), which entered service in December of 1943, were powered by the new Packard-built version of the Merlin V-12, driving a four bladed propeller. At the same time, the airframe was strengthened, the radiator was re-designed, the ailerons were improved, and racks for long range drop tanks or bombs were added under the wings.
The 1,450 hp. Packard/Merlin engine (1,595 hp. war emergency rating) gave the P-51B-7 a top speed of 445 m.p.h. Best climb was 3,320 ft./min. at 10,000 ft. The new Mustang carried 4-.50 caliber MG (two per wing), and up to 1,000 lbs. of external stores. Its range was an astounding 2,200 miles with two 150 gal. drop tanks. Endurance with drop tanks was 8.7 hours.
The new engine completely changed the character of the Mustang, turning it into a high altitude fighter suitable for bomber escort missions. It came at a crucial moment for the AAF daylight bombing campaign. Luftwaffe fighters were taking such a toll of un-escorted heavy bombers that the losses were becoming unsupportable. The great range of the P-51B-7 allowed it to escort the heavy bombers all the way to their targets deep inside Germany. In March of 1944, Mustangs went to Berlin. Eighth Air Force bomber losses plummeted, while Luftwaffe fighter losses skyrocketed.
Later in 1944 the famous P-51D model arrived. It sported a "tear drop" canopy for better all around vision and a more powerful 1,790 hp. version of the Packard/Merlin engine, along with many detail improvements. The armament was increased to 6-.50 caliber wing MG and all manner of external stores could be carried. Recognition of the D model is easy because of its teardrop canopy and the large fillet fin added in front of the vertical stabilizer. For the Luftwaffe, the end was at hand.
The final major production version of the Mustang was the P-51H. This re-designed model incorporated major improvements, as extensive in scope as those incorporated into the FW 190D or Spitfire Mk. 22.
In the H model, the structure was increased in strength by 10%, to allow higher "g" loads in combat maneuvers. No structural part was left in common with earlier models. Streamlining was improved to increase speed and stability was increased. A new version of the Packard/Merlin, incorporating water injection, delivered over 2000 hp. These changes resulted in the finest American fighter of the war. Speed was 486 m.p.h. at 30,000 ft. best climb rate was 5,350 ft./min. at 5,000 ft. Service ceiling was 41,600 ft.
Unlike most other American piston engine fighters, which were withdrawn from service soon after the end of WW II, the Mustang fought on, doing valuable ground support work in the Korean War. It was adopted by many other nations, too numerous to list here, and remained in service in some countries into the 1960's. For more information about the Mustang, see my article "The North American P-51 Mustang." The following specifications are for the famous D model of 1944.
Wingspan: 37 ft. 5/16 in.
Length: 32 ft. 3 5/16 in.
Height: 13 ft. 4 1/2in.
Wing area: 240 sq. ft.
Engine: Packard/Merlin V-1650-7, 1,790 hp. at 11,500 ft.
Max speed: 443 m.p.h. at 25,000 ft., 438 m.p.h. at 30,000 ft.
Best climb: 3,320 ft./min. at 5,000 ft.
Climb to: 10,000 ft., 3.3 min; 20,000 ft., 7.5 min.
Service ceiling: 41,900 ft.
Range: 1,140 miles at max. cruise power at
10,000 ft. (normal internal fuel load)
Endurance: 4.3 hours (normal internal fuel load)
Weight: 11,100 lb. with max. fuel
Armament: 6-.50 cal. MG (3/wing); up to 1,000 lb. of external stores on wing racks.

Yakovlev Yak-3
The final "best" air superiority fighter of the later period of the war in Europe was the Yakovlev Yak-3. Many top Soviet aces flew the Yak series of fighters, which started with the rather primitive Yak-1 and evolved into the Yak-3 air superiority and Yak-9 general purpose fighters. (See the article "The Yakovlev Yak-9" for more details about the latter model.) The Yak-9 was produced in greater numbers than any other Allied fighter of WW II, but it is the contemporary Yak-3 that was regarded as the best dogfighter on the ETO Eastern Front.
Although a program to develop the smallest and lightest fighter possible around the proposed 1,600+ hp M-107 V-12 engine was begun in 1941, due to delays in engine development and shifts in Soviet priorities, the Yak-3 did not enter service until mid-1944. Compared to the original Yak-1, the new fighter incorporated reduced drag, an all-around vision canopy, a structurally improved airframe and a new wing of reduced span and area. In the event, the intended M-107 motor was not available in time, so the 1,300 hp M-105 was substituted. Nevertheless, the Yak-3 was about 30 mph faster than the contemporary (and heavier) Yak-9.
The Yak-3's greatest asset was its tight turning radius. It was a highly maneuverable fighter that offered excellent performance below about 20,000 feet and it could turn inside of a Bf 109 or FW 190; at one point the German fighter command issued a directive instructing their fighter pilots not to dogfight with Yak fighters lacking an air scoop under the engine. (The absence of this front scoop being the key Yak-3 recognition feature.) The Yak-3 was not a particularly difficult fighter to fly, but it required a skilled pilot to take full advantage of its fighting potential. In such hands, it became an air superiority fighter second to none.
By the time production ceased in May 1945, 4,848 Yak-3 fighters had been built. Following are specifications for the Yak-3.
Wingspan: 30 ft. 3 in.
Length: 27 ft. 11 in.
Height: 7 ft. 11 in.
Wing area: 186 sq. ft.
Engine: M-105 PF-2, 1,300 hp.
Max speed: 412 m.p.h. at 10,197 ft.
Climb to: 16,400 ft., 4 min.
Service ceiling: 25,197 ft.
Range: 558 miles
Weight: 5,871 lbs.
Armament: 1-20mm cannon and 2-.50 caliber MG's, all in nose

Pacific Theater, Early Period
We now turn our attention to the best fighters in the Far East/Pacific theater of the War. In the early years, there can be only one choice. The Japanese "Zero", officially the Mitsubishi A6M5, or Imperial Japanese Navy Type 0 carrier-borne fighter.
Mitsubishi A6M Zero
At the beginning of the Pacific War no Allied fighter was a match for the Zero. The best of the early American Army fighters was probably the Curtiss P-40 and the early models of this fighter were distinctly inferior to the Zero.
Most of the Imperial Navy's top aces flew the Zero. Prominent among them is Saburo Sakai (with 64 victories), the top scoring Japanese ace to survive the war and Hiroyoshi Nishizawa (actual total of victories unknown, but 104 confirmed), perhaps the greatest of them all. Shoichi Sugita had 120+ victories, Tadashi Nakajima 75+ and Naoishi Kanno 53.
Not only could the Zero out fight any Allied fighter, it also out-ranged them. Many people do not realize that the Zero was the world's first long range escort fighter. Zeros flew long range bomber escort missions during the war in China, before the Pacific war even began. If the Germans had the long range A6M2 Zero instead of the short range Bf 109E, the outcome of the Battle of Britain might have been very different. As well known as the Zero is, its importance is still under rated by most people.
The Zero was designed by Jiro Horikoshi to fulfill Japanese Navy requirements for great range, rapid climb, high speed, and above all superior maneuverability. In order to get them, the Zero was designed with a very low wing loading; pilot armor and self sealing fuel tanks were dispensed with to save weight. Japanese fighter pilots gladly gave up such safety features in order to achieve a fighter with superior agility.
The Zero's performance fell off at high altitudes, but early in the war the American fighters that opposed it were even worse in that regard. At low and medium altitudes, nothing could touch the Zero.
The first production version of the Zero was the A6M2 Model 11, of 1940. This had a Nakajima Sakae 12 engine, a 14-cylinder air cooled radial that developed 950 hp. at 13,800 ft. The A6M2 had a top speed of 316 m.p.h. at 16,400 ft., and a range of 1,265 miles on internal fuel. With an under fuselage drop tank, the range was extended to 1,930 miles. The standard armament was 2-7.7mm MG in the engine cowling, and 2-20mm cannon in the wings. Wingspan was 39 ft. 5 in.
The similar Model 21 had folding wing tips for aircraft carrier use. This was the model on board the Japanese carriers at the beginning of the Pacific War on December 7, 1941.
The next main version of the Zero was the A6M3, which appeared late in 1942. This version was powered by an up rated 1,130 hp. Sakae 21 radial engine, with a two stage supercharger that improved high altitude performance. Top speed was increased to 336 m.p.h. at 19,865 ft. Best climb rate was 4,500 ft./min. Armament and range remained about the same.
The A6M3 Model 32 had clipped wing tips, achieved by removing the folding wing tips of the carrier model. This was intended to improve the roll rate, which was inferior to that of American fighters. This model also had reduced internal fuel capacity (down to 134 gal. from the 156 gal. capacity of the A6M3 Model 22). The Zero was beginning to show its age, and its performance was being eclipsed by the latest Allied fighters.
The reduced wing span (36 ft. 2 in.) of the Model 32 was carried over to the next model, the A6M5 of 1943. This model had the improved Sakai 31 engine with ejector exhaust stacks to augment thrust, the reduced wing span of the Model 32 (but with the familiar rounded shape of earlier Zeros), plus heavier wing skin. Speed was now up to 358 m.p.h. and dive limit speed to 410 m.p.h. Best climb rate was 3,340 ft./min. The A6M5a had an improved wing cannon, carried more ammunition and the dive limiting speed was raised to 460 m.p.h. These models still lacked any protection for the pilot, or even an emergency release for the canopy.
The A6M5b of 1944 finally addressed some of these problems. It had an armored glass windshield, automatic fire extinguishers for the fuel tanks and 12.7mm MG replacing the previous 7.7mm MG. By this time the overall performance of the Zero had fallen well below that of its major adversaries, the P-38J Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt, F6F Hellcat, P-51 Mustang and F4U Corsair.
The final version of the Zero was the A6M8c of 1945, which just reached production as the war ended. A new 1,560 hp. Kinsei 62 radial engine provided a top speed of 355 m.p.h. at 19,680 ft. and an improved climb rate.
By then, the Zero had fallen hopelessly behind in overall performance and more modern Japanese fighters were at last in production. However, the Zero remained the ultimate "turn and burn" dogfighter of the war. A total of 10,936 Zero fighters of all types were produced. More of the Zero story can be found in my article "The Mitsubishi A6M Zero." The specifications that follow are for the A6M5 Model 52 of 1943.
Wingspan: 36 ft. 2 in.
Length: 29 ft. 10 in.
Height: 9 ft. 2in.
Wing area: 238 sq./ft.
Engine: Nakajima Sakai 21, 14 cylinder two row radial, 1,320 hp. at 2,600 r.p.m.
Max speed: 358 m.p.h. at 22,000 ft.
Best climb: 3,340 ft./min. at 8,000 ft.
Climb to: 20,000 ft., 7.8 min.
Service ceiling: 35,100 ft.
Range: 1,200 miles (internal fuel), 1,844 miles with drop tank.
Max weight: 10,600 lb..
Armament: 2-7.7mm fuselage MG, 2-20mm cannon in the wings

Pacific Theater, Later period
During the latter half of the Pacific War, as has already been alluded to, American fighter planes caught and then surpassed the Japanese Navy's A6M Zero fighter (and also the Japanese Army's equivalent Ki-43) in most performance parameters. However, the Imperial Army introduced one of the outstanding fighters of WW II in response to a specification issued in 1942 for a fast, long range fighter to replace the Ki-43. The result was the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate, produced from April 1944 until the end of the war.
The top land based U.S. Army Air Force fighter in the Pacific was the Lockheed P-38 Lightning. This big twin engine fighter had the range, firepower, and speed to dominate the skies in the theater. The number one American ace, Major Richard Bong (40 victories), flew the Lightning, as did the number two American ace Major Thomas McGuire (38 victories). The P-38 also made a major contribution in the European theater, but the extremely high altitude combat taking place over the continent was not really the best environment for the P-38's Allison engines. In the Pacific, the Japanese did not normally operate at extreme altitudes, and the P-38 really came into its own.
U. S. Navy and Marine pilots flew different airplanes, of course, and they had two of the best in the Pacific. One of these was the Chance Vought F4U Corsair. (The other, of course, was the Hellcat, which is covered in a separate article.) The Corsair is the famous fighter with inverted gull wings. The German Stuka dive bomber also had inverted gull wings, and it is the only other famous combat aircraft of WW II I can think of that did. The Corsair was so big and fast that until the end of 1944 the Navy used it entirely as a land based fighter. Finally, though, it was approved for carrier operations. By then aces like Marine Major "Pappy" Boyington (28 victories, and the first man to break Eddie Rickenbacker's WW I record of 26) had made the Corsair fighter famous.
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
Let's take a look at the P-38 Lightning first. The P-38 shot down more Japanese aircraft than any other USAAF fighter in WW II. It was flown by both of the top American aces of the war. Its incredible range became legendary, and its twin engines particularly suited it for long over water flights.
The P-38 story started in January 1937, when the Army Air Corps issued a specification for a new pursuit plane for the "interception and attack of hostile aircraft at high altitude". The government anticipated an order for a maximum of 50 planes, so suitability for mass production was not a consideration. Lockheed was one of the companies that entered the competition to design and build the new fighter.
H. L. Hibard and Clarence "Kelly" Johnson were assigned the job of primary design. Johnson realized that no existing engine could provide enough power to meet the government specification, and began a series of single seat, twin engine fighter designs. The new Allison V-1710 engine was chosen by the Lockheed design team to power the new fighter.
The final layout of the new twin engine fighter (called the Model 22 by Lockheed) incorporated turbo superchargers, counter rotating props, twin tail booms, and a central fuselage for the pilot. It also had a tricycle landing gear and a control wheel (later yoke) instead of a stick.
The nose of the central fuselage was used to mount the very effective armament of 1-20mm cannon and 4-.50 cal. MG. There was no need for an interrupter gear to shoot through a propeller and no need to "converge" wing guns.
In June 1937, the Army notified Lockheed that their design had won the competition, and authorized Lockheed to build one prototype airplane, designated the XP-38. In late December 1938 the prototype was ready to fly. It was the most streamlined plane ever seen, built with flush riveted external panels butted together. Stainless steel was used extensively in its construction.
That first XP-38 proved to be capable of a level speed of 413 m.p.h. and had a terrific climb rate. Unfortunately, the first prototype crashed only 16 days after its first flight. It was written off during a record setting cross-country flight that ended with the AAF pilot landing short of the runway. Tony LeVier (Lockheed Chief Test Pilot) later estimated that disaster set the P-38 program back nearly two years.
In April 1939 the Air Corps ordered 13 YP-38 airplanes for testing. In September 1939, the Army ordered 66 more for service. In August 1940 over 600 more P-38s were ordered. At that time, Lockheed had not even delivered the first YP-38!
As alluded to earlier, the P-38 was not designed for mass production. Many serious engineering and production problems had to be solved before the Lightning could be produced in quantity.
The P-38 was one of the first airplanes fast enough to encounter "compressibility" (more properly called shock stall) problems in the high altitude, high speed dive. The basic problem was that in a sustained dive from high altitude, speed quickly built up to the point that the airflow over parts of the airplane (such as the upper surface of the wing) reached supersonic speeds. A shock wave is formed. This destroys the lift over that part of the wing. It also causes the air flowing off the wing to affect the tail in an unusual manner: it increases lift at the tail.
This loss of lift from the wings, coupled with increased lift from its tail, causes the nose of the airplane to go down. This increased dive angle causes the speed to increase farther. And so on, in a vicious and often fatal circle.
The P-38 was not the only American fighter to encounter this effect in dives from very high altitudes (where the air is thin), the P-47 and F4U both suffered the same problem. But the P-38 was different. The big radial engine fighters would dive uncontrollably toward the earth until they reached the thicker air at lower altitudes. There two things happened: 1. The speed of sound goes up as the altitude gets lower; 2. The increased drag of the thick air on their large frontal surfaces would tend to limit further speed increases. Finally the pilot would begin to regain some control and, pulling back as hard as he could on the stick, would typically wind up in a screaming zoom climb.
The P-38 differed because of its extremely streamlined design. Its drag was so low that the thicker lower air often did not have enough effect for the pilot to regain control in time: the P-38 just dove straight into the ground.
Lockheed and the Air Corps lost a number of test pilots and aircraft trying to understand and solve these problems. The P-38 had taken them into flight regimes at best poorly understood at that time. The eventual solution included counter balancing and raising the tail of the airplane some 30 inches, and developing high speed dive flaps to control the rate of descent.
Lockheed produced dive flap kits to retro-fit to planes in the field, but it was not until they began producing the P-38J-25-LO model that dive flaps were incorporated in the new aircraft coming off the assembly line. A brief description of four of the major P-38 combat models follows.
The P-38F went into production in March 1942, and into combat in the Pacific in December, where it reversed the fortunes of AAF fighter pilots facing the previously unbeatable Zero. The "F" had a 1,325 hp. Allison engine. Top speed was 395 m.p.h. at 25,000 ft.
P-38G models had strengthened Fowler flaps which could be used at combat speeds up to 250 m.p.h. to tighten the turning radius. The engines developed an extra 100 hp. Production began in August 1942.
The P-38J went into production in mid-1943. It incorporated many improvements, including more powerful engines, improved superchargers, relocation of the intercoolers from the leading edge of the wings to beneath the nose of the engines, a bulletproof windscreen, and, at the J-25-LO model, the factory installed dive flaps. Speed was up to 426 m.p.h., and best climb to 3,900 ft./min. The "J" would climb to 20,000 ft. in 5.9 minutes.
The P-38L of 1944 was the final and best Lightning, a world beating fighter. It incorporated many of the improvements of the "J" and "K" models. For more information about the P-38, read my article "The Lockheed P-38 Lightning." Specifications of the P-38L-5-LO follow.
Wingspan: 52 ft.
Length: 37 ft. 10 in.
Height: 12 ft. 10 in.
Wing area: 328 sq. ft.
Engine: Allison V-1710-111, 1,600 hp. at 28,700ft.
Max speed: 414 m.p.h. at 25,000 ft.
Climb to: 10,000 ft., 4 min.; 20,000 ft., 7 minutes
Service ceiling: 44,000 ft.
Combat range: 450 miles at 290 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft.;
2,600 miles with max. external fuel
Empty weight: 14,100 lb.
Loaded weight: 21,600 lb.
Armament: 1-20mm cannon, 4-.50 cal MG, 3,200 lb. external stores.

Chance Vought F4U Corsair
The Chance Vought F4U Corsair is my other "best" Pacific theater fighter. This big, fast, Navy and Marine fighter was designed in 1938 around the new Pratt and Whitney R-2800-2 Double Wasp engine, which promised to be the most powerful in the world at that time. It was a twin row 18 cylinder radial engine that produced some 1,850 HP in its initial version.
The most distinctive feature of the Corsair is its "cranked" or inverted gull wing. This feature was designed to raise nose of the airplane higher off the ground without unduly lengthening the undercarriage. The reason was to allow the use of the largest possible diameter propeller in order to make most efficient use of the engine's high power. It also allowed the wing's hinge point to be a little closer to the ground, and the tips consequently a little lower when folded, giving a little more hanger deck roof clearance on board aircraft carriers. The propeller selected was a three-bladed Hamilton-Standard Hydromatic constant speed model.
The prototype XF4U-1 was delivered to the Navy in 1940, where it became the first Navy fighter to exceed 400 MPH in level flight and also to encounter shock stall, as described in the P-38 section above. This insidious problem affected the first generation of fighters to achieve high mach numbers in a dive, including the P-38, F4U and P-47.
The Corsair F4U-1 was ordered into production in the Autumn of 1941. It reached the Marines fighting to hold Guadalcanal, in the Solomon Islands, in February of 1943, where it went operational for the first time with Marine Squadron 124.
The Marines found that the big Corsair at last gave them superiority over the Zero, as long as they did not try to turn with the lighter Japanese fighter. The Corsair was much faster than the Zero, had a better roll rate, and could dive away to safety when necessary. Corsair pilots established a very satisfactory kill ratio and helped turn the tide of war against the Japanese. The F4U-1 had a top speed of 393 m.p.h. at 25,000 ft. Water injection was eventually added to the engine, raising the top speed to 415 m.p.h.
The Corsair was continuously modified and improved. By 1945 over 3000 minor and major improvements had been made. The definitive Corsair was the F4U-4.
Major improvements evident in the F4U-4 included a four-bladed Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller, a new cockpit layout, a clear view sliding hood, a two stage turbo-supercharged engine, and under wing attachment points for rockets or bombs.
Unlike most American piston engine fighters, the Corsair continued to serve long after the end of WW II. Production did not finally end until 1953, by which time about 12,500 F4U's of all types had been built.
Interviews conducted after the war revealed that Japanese fighter pilots considered the Corsair to be the best all-around American fighter. The Corsair subsequently served in the Korean War, and with the French in Indochina (Vietnam). It also served as a carrier based fighter with the British Royal Navy during and after the war. For more information about the Corsair see my article "The Chance Vought F4U Corsair." Specifications for the F4U-4 follow.
Wingspan: 40 ft. 11.75 in.
Length: 33 ft. 8.25in
Height: 14 ft. 9.25 in.
Wing area: 314 sq. ft.
Engine: Pratt and Whitney R-2000-18W; 2,325 hp. at 2,800 r.p.m. at S.L.
Max speed: 435 m.p.h. at 15,000 ft.
Best climb: 4,770 ft./min. at S.L.
Climb to: 20,000 ft., 4.9 min.
Service ceiling: 38,400 ft.
Range: 1,005 miles at 214 m.p.h. at 15,000 ft.
Empty weight: 9,167 lbs.
Loaded weight: 12,405 lbs.
Armament: 6-.50 cal. MG (3/wing); up to 2,000 lbs. of bombs under fuselage; 8-5 in. rockets under wings.

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate
Generally considered the best Japanese fighter of the war and equal or superior to the best Allied fighters, the Ki-84 Hayate (Hurricane or Storm) was Nakajima Hikoki KK's response to a set of specifications promulgated early in 1942 by the Imperial Japanese Army for a fast, long range, multi-purpose fighter to replace the increasing obsolescent Ki-43 and the later Ki-44. A top speed of 640-680 km/hr (398-420 mph) was desired, along with substantial endurance, a stronger airframe, pilot armor, self-sealing fuel tanks and a heavy armament of 2-20mm cannons and 2-.50 caliber machine guns. The power plant was to be the Nakajima Ha-45 19-cylinder radial engine, expected to develop around 1,800 HP.
Nakajima accepted the challenge and the result was the prototype Ki-84, which appeared in March 1943. The Ki-84's big radial engine was closely cowled and the prop was fitted with a large spinner, rather like the FW-190, with a large oil cooler carried in a fairing beneath the engine cowling. The engine's 18 cylinders had individual, thrust augmenting, exhaust stubs. The two .50 caliber machine guns were located in the cowling above the motor and the 20mm cannon were mounted in the wings outside of the propeller arc. In addition, hard points allowed for carrying extra fuel in drop tanks or a 550 pound bomb beneath each wing. The pilot benefited from excellent all-around vision provided by a streamlined greenhouse canopy. A wide-track landing gear that retracted inward simplified take-offs, landings and ground handling.
The potential of the new fighter was immediately realized and the Army ordered a large number of pre-production aircraft for in-service testing. By April 1944 the Ki-84 was in series production as the Army Type 4 Fighter Model 1A (Ki-84-1a), replacing the earlier Ki-44 on the assembly lines. A total of 3,514 Ki-84 fighters were completed by the end of the war in two Japanese and one Manchurian factory. Manchurian production amounted to something like 94 aircraft, all built in 1945, and these were labeled "Ki-84-1s." Deleting the 12.7mm machine guns and increasing the armament to 4-20mm cannon resulted in the model Ki-84-1b. A further increase in armament to 2-20mm and 2-30mm cannon, designed to counter the B-29 heavy bombers that were by then pillaging Japan, became the Ki-84-1c. Few of the 1b and 1c models were ever built, the great majority of production being the Ki-84-1a variant.
In service, production Ki-84's were hampered by shortages of raw materials (particularly lightweight metals), shoddy assembly, poor quality control (Japanese aircraft production facilities were by then under unrelenting attack by American air power and few skilled workers remained), shortages of high octane gas, a lack of well trained pilots and poor maintenance in the field. Even so, the Ki-84 (code named "Frank") was highly respected by the Allied fighter pilots who faced it in the skies over Manchukuo, China, Formosa, Okinawa, the Philippines and Japan.

After the war a captured K1-84-1a was brought to the U.S. and extensively tested. Air Force pilots found that this aircraft, properly maintained and supplied with good aviation gas, was capable of 426 mph at 20,050 feet carrying a full fighter load of 7,505 lbs. This was slightly faster than either the P-51D or P-47D tested in identical conditions, the fastest American piston-engined fighters of the war. However, the Ki-84's performance fell off at high altitudes. This aircraft was eventually returned to Japan, where it is now on display.
Compared to the other great WW II propeller driven fighters, the Ki-84 was an excellent air superiority fighter that could match the best in the world at low and medium altitudes. It was competitive with the best energy fighters in "boom and zoom" and capable of winning dogfights ("turn and burn") against the Ki-44, Raiden, Bf-109, FW-190, P-51, P-47, P-38, La-5, La-7 and Corsair. It generally out-performed the fighters equal or superior to itself in maneuverability (principally the Ki-43, Zero, Spitfire, Hurricane, P-40, Wildcat, Hellcat and Yak 3), making it a difficult antagonist for any contemporary piston-engined fighter. Specifications for the Ki-84-1a follow.
Wingspan: 36 ft. 10 in.
Length: 32 ft. 7 in.
Height: 11 ft. 1.25 in.
Wing area: 226 sq. ft.
Engine: Nakajima Ha-45 radial; 1,825 hp (1,990 hp in the final production series). at S.L.
Max speed: 388 m.p.h. at 19,865 ft.
Climb to: 16,400 ft., 6 min. 29 sec.
Service ceiling: 10,500 m (approx. 35,000 ft.)
Range: 1,005 miles at 214 m.p.h. at 15,000 ft.
Empty weight: 5,908 lbs.
Loaded weight: 8,267 lbs.
Armament: 2-.50 cal. (12.7mm) MG, 2-20mm wing cannon; up to 1,100 lbs. of bombs under wings.

That's it, my picks for the best fighter planes of World War II. Nine excellent air superiority fighters that saw widespread sevice.