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Monday, November 30, 2015

(FACTS) NORTH WIND


As surely as a north wind brings rain..."(Proverbs 25:23)..."Out of the south cometh the whirlwind: and cold out of the north.(Job 37:9)
A north wind is a wind that originates in the north and blows south. The north wind has had historical and literal significance, since it often signals cold weather and seasonal change in the Northern hemisphere.

SPEAKING TO FIND RELIEF



Job 32:20
I must speak to find relief, so let me give my answers.


Sometimes the toughest thing about feelings is sharing them with others. Sharing your feelings helps you when your feelings are good and when they aren't so good. Sharing also helps you to get closer to people you care about and who care about you.


Focusing on Your Feelings

You can't tell your friends what's inside your backpack if you don't know what's in there yourself. Feelings (which lots of people also call "emotions") are the same way. Before you can share them with anyone, you have to figure out what feelings you have.

Making a list of your feelings can help. You can do this in your head or by writing it out on a piece of paper or even by drawing pictures. Is something bothering you? Does it make you sad or angry? Do you feel this emotion only once in a while or do you feel it a lot of the time?

When you're trying to figure out your feelings, it might help to remember something that happened and think about how it made you feel. Then you can say, "I feel sad when my friend doesn't play with me" or "I feel angry when my brother always wins at baseball." This can help you figure out your own feelings. It also gives the person you're talking with more information about what's bothering you.

Why Talk About Your Feelings?

The way a person feels inside is important. It can be really hard not to tell anyone that you're feeling sad, worried, or upset. Then, it's just you and these bad feelings. If you keep feelings locked inside, it can even make you feel sick!

But if you talk with someone who cares for you, like your mom or dad, you will almost always start to feel better. Now you're not all alone with your problems or worries. It doesn't mean your problems and worries magically disappear, but at least someone else knows what's bothering you and can help you find solutions.

Your mom and dad want to know if you have problems because they love you and they want to know what's happening in your life. But what if a kid doesn't want to talk with mom or dad? Then find another trusted adult, like a relative or a counselor at school. Maybe this person can help you talk with your mom and dad about your problem or concern.

How to Talk About Your Feelings

Once you know who you can talk with, you'll want to pick a time and place to talk. Does it need to be private, or can you talk with your brother and sister in the room? If you think you'll have trouble saying what's on your mind, write it down on a piece of paper.

If the person doesn't understand what you mean right away, try explaining it a different way or give an example of what's concerning you. Is there something you think could be done to make things better? If so, say it.

Some kids — just like some adults — are more private than others. That means some people will feel more shy about sharing their feelings. A kid doesn't have to share every feeling he or she has, but it is important to share feelings when a kid needs help. You don't have to solve every problem on your own. Sometimes you need help. And if you do, talking about your feelings can be the first step toward getting it.

Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD
Date reviewed: April 2015

Sunday, November 29, 2015

ELECTROMAGNETIC NOISE


Job 37:17
How your garments are warm, when he quiets the earth by the south wind?


Electromagnetic Radiation that cause Noise everywhere on Earth in fact God plan to silence this noise 

Revelation 8:1
And when He opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour.


The terrestrial environment is continuously exposed to electromagnetic radiations which set up a «background» electromagnetic noise. Within the Non Ionizing Radiation band (NIR), i.e. for frequencies lower than 300 GHz, this background can have a natural or an artificial origin. Natural origins of electromagnetic radiations are generally atmospheric or cosmic while artificial origins are technological applications, power transmission, communications, etc. This paper briefly describes the natural and man-made electromagnetic noise in the NIR band. Natural noise comes from a large variety of sources involving different physical phenomena and covering a wide range of frequencies and showing various propagation characteristics with an extremely broad range of power levels. Due to technological growth man-made electromagnetic noise is nowadays superimposed on natural noise almost everywhere on Earth. In the last decades man-made noise has increased dramatically over and above the natural noise in residential and business areas. This increase has led some scientists to consider possible negative effects of electromagnetic waves on human life and living systems in general. Accurate measurements of natural and man-made electromagnetic noise are necessary to understand the relative power levels in the different bands and their influence on life.

Sunday, November 22, 2015

ANTI -KRISTO


Ito ang Isa sa pag-aangkin ng Papa sa Roma: 

"We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty"-Pope Leo XIII Encyclical Letter of June 20, 1894

Dito maliwanag na Inangkin ng papa sa Roma na nasa lugar siya ng pagiging Dios na Makapagyarihan sa Lahat dito sa lupa itinanghal ng papa sa Roma ang kanyang sarili na nasa pwesto ng Dios .

Na ito ay maliwanag na isang TANDA ng pagiging Anti-Kristo na itatanyag ang kanyang sarili na TULAD sa DIOS.(2Tesalonica 2:3-4) 

Ang mga tunay na Lingkod ng Dios na hinalal ng Dios ay hindi nag-aangkin ng ganitong kataas na karangalan sa kanilang sarili bagkus tinutulan nila ito na ikapit sa kanila gaya ng pagtutol ng lingkod ng Dios na si Jose nung ariin siya ng kanyang mga kapatid na parang Dios ay sinaway sila ni Jose na ang sabi :

Joseph said to them, "Don't be afraid, for am I in the place of God?.(Genesis 50:19)

Hindi pwedi na ang tao ay uopo  sa pwesto ng pagiging Dios sapagkat wala siyang gaya o may ibang Dios pa bukod sa kanya. 

Kaya't ikaw ay dakila, Oh Panginoong Dios: sapagka't walang gaya mo, o may ibang Dios pa bukod sa iyo, ayon sa lahat na aming naririnig ng aming mga pakinig. (1 Samuel 7:22)


Thursday, November 19, 2015

SATAN IS THE ONE WHO WEAKENED THE NATIONS




World's Poorest Countries


The rankings below were published in the United Nation's 2011 Human Development Report and reflect the countries with the lowest human development.


How you have fallen from heaven, O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, You who have weakened the nations!.(Isaiah 14:12)

1. Congo (Democratic Republic of the)
22. Rwanda
2. Niger
23. Djibouti
3. Burundi
24. Zambia
4. Mozambique
25. Comoros
5. Chad
26. Togo
6. Liberia
27. Uganda
7. Burkina Faso
28. Lesotho
8. Sierra Leone
29. Mauritania
9. Central African Republic
30. Haiti
10. Guinea
31. Nepal
11. Eritrea
32. Nigeria
12. Guinea-Bissau
33. Senegal
13. Mali
34. Yemen
14. Ethiopia
35. Papua New Guinea
15. Zimbabwe
36. Tanzania, United Republic of
16. Afghanistan
37. Madagascar
17. Malawi
38. Cameroon
18. Côte d'lvoire
39. Myanmar
19. Sudan
40. Angola
20. Gambia
41. Timor-Leste
21. Benin
42. Bangladesh


Trends among the world's poorest countries

Since 1970, there has been encouraging news emerging from developing countries. According to the UN's 2011 Human Development Report, life expectancy in developing countries had increased from 59 years in 1970 to 70 years in 2010. School enrollment climbed from 55% to 70% of all primary and secondary school-age children. Also, in the last forty years, per capita GDP doubled to more than ten thousand U.S. dollars.

The World's average Human Development Index (HDI), which combines information on life expectancy, schooling and income, has increased 19% since 1990 (and 41% since 1970). This reflects large improvements in life expectancy, school enrollment, literacy, and income. Almost every country has benefited from this progress. Only three countries had a lower HDI in 2010 than in 1970. Those three countries were Zimbabwe, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Poor countries are catching up with the wealthier countries, but not all countries made fast progress. For example, the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have progressed slowly, largely due to the HIV epidemic. Countries in the former Soviet Union have been held back by an increase in adult mortality.

the consequence of poverty, genocide, years of war, lack of natural resources, poor farm management, and limited access to clean water and healthcare.

To illustrate the income inequality between rich and poor countries, consider these facts: about 1.75 billion people live in multi-dimensional poverty, meaning extreme deprivation in education, health, and standard of living; 1.44 billion people out of the developing world's 6.9 billion people live on $1.25 per day; 2.6 billion people are estimated to be living on less than $2 a day. Multidimensional poverty varies by region from three percent in Europe and Central Asia to 65% in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Sunday, November 8, 2015

NOAH FLOOD FACTS OR NOT


2 Peter 3:6
Then he used the water to destroy the ancient world with a mighty flood.


Paleosols: formed during Noah's Flood?


Soils are complex geologic/minerological structures formed by the physical, chemical and organic weathering of some parent material, which could be anything from crystalline igneous rocks to soft, unconsolidated sediments. Numerous studies of pedogenic (soil-forming) processes operating in natural environments show that well-developed soils require hundreds to thousands of years to form, depending upon climate, intensity of weathering, type of parent material and so on (Buol et al., 1989, pp. 175-188). Obviously soils could not form during a flood. However, numerous paleosols exist in the geologic record (e.g. Retallack 1990; Meyer 1997; Martini and Chesworth 1992; Reinhardt and Sigleo 1988), including, among other soil types, vertisols, calcisols, oxisols, spodosols, ultisols, argillosols, and gleysols.

In many sections numerous stacked soil horizons have been documented, each of which would require decades to centuries or more to form. For example, Allen (1986) documents several hundred pedogenic calcrete horizons within a 3km section of the Old Red Sandstone in the Anglo-Welsh area of southern Britain. Retallack (1977) documents at least 16 stacked paleosols from the Triassic age Upper Narrabeen Group of the Sydney Basin. Retallack (1983; 1992) documents 87 palaeosols in the Eocene-Oligocene Brule and Chadron Formations in South Dakota (see also Terry 2001). Kraus (e.g. 1997), Bown and Kraus (1981), and others have documented hundreds of paleosols within the Eocene Willwood Formation. Many other examples are known (e.g. Arndorff 1994; Bestland et al. 1996; Wright 1982).

Coals are often found directly above fossil soils. Most paleosols underlying Carboniferous coals are only weakly-developed, others are exceptionally "mature." The most frequently observed variety of paleosol underlying coal seams are so-called "underclays." These paleosols typically lack strong horizonation and display pedogenic characteristics similar those found today in peat-accumulating environments. As an example, evidence of pedogenesis in the underclay beneath the Upper Elkhorn Coal in eastern Kentucky include features such as roots and/or root traces, downprofile decrease in kaolinite/mica ratio, mica thickness, and vermiculite content, up-profile decrease in chlorite, and the presence of siderite nodules (Gardner et al. 1988). Jonathon Clarke describes an early Carboniferous paleosol from South Wales, which occurs in association with thin coal seams.

Although most 'underclay' paleosols are only weakly to moderately developed, some paleosols underlying coals are in fact very well-developed. For instance, Gill and Yemane (1996, p. 905–908) describe an exceptionally mature and complete Ultisol profile beneath the lower Pennsylvanian Lykens Valley #2 coal in northeastern Pennsylvania. The paleosol contains deep and abundant rooting, strong base leaching, clay cutans, blocky peds, a distinctive Bt horizon, and many other pedogenic features. The authors estimate on the basis of modern analogues that the substrate may have undergone up to 100,000 years worth of weathering and leaching, requiring a hiatus in sedimentation at least that long (pedogenesis probably began long before the coal began accumulating). They write (p. 908):

Both bulk and clay mineralogy, as well as geochemical and petrographic analyses, indicate that the underclay beneath the Lykens Valley #2 coal is a complete and well-formed soil profile. However this soil profile does not exhibit characteristics typical of a water-logged Histosol (Levine and Slingerland, 1987), nor does it appear to have been a poorly formed Entisol or Inceptisol as might form on a flood-plain levee. Rather, the Lykens Valley profile shows evidence of substantial leaching and translocation of material, indicating a sustained period of soil formation. The Lykens Valley paleosol profile, with its albic horizon and well-developed Bt horizon, is consistent with that of an Ultisol. Ultisols are highly weathered, base-poor, oxidized soils of warm, humid forest regions (Brady, 1990; Retallack, 1990). Modern Ultisols are characterized by their low base status, the predominance of 1:1 clays such as kaolinite, and illuvial accumulation of clay in the B horizon (Brady, 1990).

The degree of weathering, the distribution of minerals, and the fabrics of the Lykens Valley underclay are consistent with that of a modern Ultisol. Ultisols typically take from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years to form in warm, moist tropical or subtropical environments (Retallack, 1990). The persistence of a stable environment over the period of time necessary for such a soil to form indicates that the Lykens Valley paleosol did not form in a rapidly changing flood-plain environment. Had deposition continued during soil formation, even at a slow pace, the soil profile would have remained immature with poorly expressed E and B horizons. The pedogenic formation of such a mature profile requires a hiatus in sedimentation.

While most paleosols within early and middle Pennsylvanian cyclothems are inferred to have formed in wet, poorly-drained environments, late Pennsylvanian and early Permian cyclothems contain paleosols which are indicative of dry or seasonal climate (calcisols, vertisols). Thick coal seams are not present in these cyclothems, nor would we expect them to be, since peat cannot accumulate in an arid environment (on the flood "model," it is not clear why coals are not found in association with arid "paleosols"). For instance, Miller et al. (1996) documents 5 paleosol-bearing intervals within the early Permian Council Grove Group and Chase Group of Kansas. The intervals commonly contain more than one paleosol. Pedogenic features present in one or more of the paleosols include well developed B, Bt, Bk and C horizons, clay cutans on blocky to fine peds, carbonate glabules and rhizocretions (up to 4cm in diameter and 60cm in length). The uppermost paleosol is classified as a vertisol, and displays well-developed pedogenic slickensides, pseudoanticlines and mukarra structure. These features are typical of soils formed under semi-arid conditions, which of course is inconsistent with the flood model. Tabor and Montanez (1999) describe a similar shift to semiarid/arid climate paleosols in late Pennsylvanian/early Permian of the Midland Basin, Texas.

Fossil soils are also found in cyclothems without associated coals. Some are these are well-developed and mature. Joeckel (1995) describes a prominent paleosol profile developed atop Upper Pennsylvanian limestones of the Shawnee Group in Nebraska and Iowa. The profile, which is up to 4m thick, displays well-developed horizonation (A, Bt, Btk horizons), clay cutans and other clay illuviation features, and many other soil structures. Small carbonate nodules are present within the Bt horizon (p. 166). The lowermost horizon contains large (up to 9cm) clasts of limestone weathered out of the underlying Ost Limestone. The Ost Limestone beneath the paleosol displays abundant karst weathering features extending to a depth of several meters. Joeckel notes:

By Midcontinent Pennsylvanian standards, the development of karstic features in the Ost is extreme . . . Karstic features in the Ost consist of: (1) a pervasive, three-dimensional network of fine microkarst veins (silt and clay-lined cracks), which occupy an estimated 10-25% of the rock volume; (2) regularly interspersed, vertically oriented solution pipes, locally occupying as much as 10-20% of the volume of the unit; and (3) a few, poorly-defined shallow depressions up to 50cm deep and 120cm in diameter (p. 167).

Tandon and Bird (1997) describe several prominent calcrete horizons up to 1 meter thick and tracable for more than 30km along strike present within coal-bearing cyclothems of the Sydney Basin of eastern Canada. The limestones beneath the calcretes preserves large polygonal dessication cracks up to 1m deep. Unlike the pedogenic features present in the underclays, which imply a submerged, humid climate, the nodular calcretes imply a relatively more arid climate during lowstands within the cyclothems. Tandon and Bird note that the "alteration of calcrete and coal is an unusual aspect of the cyclothems for, in modern landscapes, calcretes are generally developed in relatively arid settings and coals in relatively humid settings" (p. 44). The repeated alteration of these paleosols suggests that climate changed cyclicaly during deposition of the cyclothems. In other words, the eustatic cycles which created the cyclothems were linked to climate such that lowstands of the sea were associated with arid conditions, and highstands with humid conditions. Tandon and Gibling note that a similar lowstand-aridity correlation has been documented for the Australian interior during the past 300k years (e.g. Kershaw and Nanson 1993).

Vertical pedogenic trends, in conjunction with relative sea-level curves for the Sydney cyclothems, indicate that relatively arid, seasonal conditions prevailed during lowstand and early transgression. The relatively mature, nodular calcretes reflect prolonged periods of minimal sedimentation during lowstand. . . In contrast, relatively humid conditions prevailed during during late transgressin and highstand, with the formation of peat (coal) and hydromorphic paleosols. These observations are in accord with Quaternary climatic evidence, and suggest that climate and relative changes in sea level were linked (p. 64).

Roof shale rhythmites as a depositional chronometer

Many Carboniferous coals in the mid US (Illinois, Kansas, Indiana) are overlain by "roof shales" containing rhythmic laminae sequences interpreted as tidal rhythmites (e.g. Archer at al. 1995; Greb and Archer 1998). These roof shales often bury upright trees above coals. These sedimentary deposits are very distinctive in appearance. They usually consist of sand-mud couplets, each about 1mm-1cm thick. These couplets are usually flat (planar) to slightly wavy. The individual couplets are arranged in larger sequences of about 10-12 couplets, which progressively increase and then decrease in thickness. Seperating each sequence of couplets is a distinct dark band, which in modern examples represent bacterial colonization of the tidal flats during the period of neap emergence. Similar tidal rhythmites have been documented burying trees in Alaska, near the town of Portage, where coseismic subsidence in the year 1964 resulted in the aggradation of tidal flats over spruce groves near the coast (Atwater et al., 2001).

Paleosols: formed during Noah's Flood?

Soils are complex geologic/minerological structures formed by the physical, chemical and organic weathering of some parent material, which could be anything from crystalline igneous rocks to soft, unconsolidated sediments. Numerous studies of pedogenic (soil-forming) processes operating in natural environments show that well-developed soils require hundreds to thousands of years to form, depending upon climate, intensity of weathering, type of parent material and so on (Buol et al., 1989, pp. 175-188). Obviously soils could not form during a flood. However, numerous paleosols exist in the geologic record (e.g. Retallack 1990; Meyer 1997; Martini and Chesworth 1992; Reinhardt and Sigleo 1988), including, among other soil types, vertisols, calcisols, oxisols, spodosols, ultisols, argillosols, and gleysols.

In many sections numerous stacked soil horizons have been documented, each of which would require decades to centuries or more to form. For example, Allen (1986) documents several hundred pedogenic calcrete horizons within a 3km section of the Old Red Sandstone in the Anglo-Welsh area of southern Britain. Retallack (1977) documents at least 16 stacked paleosols from the Triassic age Upper Narrabeen Group of the Sydney Basin. Retallack (1983; 1992) documents 87 palaeosols in the Eocene-Oligocene Brule and Chadron Formations in South Dakota (see also Terry 2001). Kraus (e.g. 1997), Bown and Kraus (1981), and others have documented hundreds of paleosols within the Eocene Willwood Formation. Many other examples are known (e.g. Arndorff 1994; Bestland et al. 1996; Wright 1982).

Coals are often found directly above fossil soils. Most paleosols underlying Carboniferous coals are only weakly-developed, others are exceptionally "mature." The most frequently observed variety of paleosol underlying coal seams are so-called "underclays." These paleosols typically lack strong horizonation and display pedogenic characteristics similar those found today in peat-accumulating environments. As an example, evidence of pedogenesis in the underclay beneath the Upper Elkhorn Coal in eastern Kentucky include features such as roots and/or root traces, downprofile decrease in kaolinite/mica ratio, mica thickness, and vermiculite content, up-profile decrease in chlorite, and the presence of siderite nodules (Gardner et al. 1988). Jonathon Clarke describes an early Carboniferous paleosol from South Wales, which occurs in association with thin coal seams.

Although most 'underclay' paleosols are only weakly to moderately developed, some paleosols underlying coals are in fact very well-developed. For instance, Gill and Yemane (1996, p. 905–908) describe an exceptionally mature and complete Ultisol profile beneath the lower Pennsylvanian Lykens Valley #2 coal in northeastern Pennsylvania. The paleosol contains deep and abundant rooting, strong base leaching, clay cutans, blocky peds, a distinctive Bt horizon, and many other pedogenic features. The authors estimate on the basis of modern analogues that the substrate may have undergone up to 100,000 years worth of weathering and leaching, requiring a hiatus in sedimentation at least that long (pedogenesis probably began long before the coal began accumulating). They write (p. 908):

Both bulk and clay mineralogy, as well as geochemical and petrographic analyses, indicate that the underclay beneath the Lykens Valley #2 coal is a complete and well-formed soil profile. However this soil profile does not exhibit characteristics typical of a water-logged Histosol (Levine and Slingerland, 1987), nor does it appear to have been a poorly formed Entisol or Inceptisol as might form on a flood-plain levee. Rather, the Lykens Valley profile shows evidence of substantial leaching and translocation of material, indicating a sustained period of soil formation. The Lykens Valley paleosol profile, with its albic horizon and well-developed Bt horizon, is consistent with that of an Ultisol. Ultisols are highly weathered, base-poor, oxidized soils of warm, humid forest regions (Brady, 1990; Retallack, 1990). Modern Ultisols are characterized by their low base status, the predominance of 1:1 clays such as kaolinite, and illuvial accumulation of clay in the B horizon (Brady, 1990).

The degree of weathering, the distribution of minerals, and the fabrics of the Lykens Valley underclay are consistent with that of a modern Ultisol. Ultisols typically take from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years to form in warm, moist tropical or subtropical environments (Retallack, 1990). The persistence of a stable environment over the period of time necessary for such a soil to form indicates that the Lykens Valley paleosol did not form in a rapidly changing flood-plain environment. Had deposition continued during soil formation, even at a slow pace, the soil profile would have remained immature with poorly expressed E and B horizons. The pedogenic formation of such a mature profile requires a hiatus in sedimentation.

While most paleosols within early and middle Pennsylvanian cyclothems are inferred to have formed in wet, poorly-drained environments, late Pennsylvanian and early Permian cyclothems contain paleosols which are indicative of dry or seasonal climate (calcisols, vertisols). Thick coal seams are not present in these cyclothems, nor would we expect them to be, since peat cannot accumulate in an arid environment (on the flood "model," it is not clear why coals are not found in association with arid "paleosols"). For instance, Miller et al. (1996) documents 5 paleosol-bearing intervals within the early Permian Council Grove Group and Chase Group of Kansas. The intervals commonly contain more than one paleosol. Pedogenic features present in one or more of the paleosols include well developed B, Bt, Bk and C horizons, clay cutans on blocky to fine peds, carbonate glabules and rhizocretions (up to 4cm in diameter and 60cm in length). The uppermost paleosol is classified as a vertisol, and displays well-developed pedogenic slickensides, pseudoanticlines and mukarra structure. These features are typical of soils formed under semi-arid conditions, which of course is inconsistent with the flood model. Tabor and Montanez (1999) describe a similar shift to semiarid/arid climate paleosols in late Pennsylvanian/early Permian of the Midland Basin, Texas.

Fossil soils are also found in cyclothems without associated coals. Some are these are well-developed and mature. Joeckel (1995) describes a prominent paleosol profile developed atop Upper Pennsylvanian limestones of the Shawnee Group in Nebraska and Iowa. The profile, which is up to 4m thick, displays well-developed horizonation (A, Bt, Btk horizons), clay cutans and other clay illuviation features, and many other soil structures. Small carbonate nodules are present within the Bt horizon (p. 166). The lowermost horizon contains large (up to 9cm) clasts of limestone weathered out of the underlying Ost Limestone. The Ost Limestone beneath the paleosol displays abundant karst weathering features extending to a depth of several meters. Joeckel notes:

By Midcontinent Pennsylvanian standards, the development of karstic features in the Ost is extreme . . . Karstic features in the Ost consist of: (1) a pervasive, three-dimensional network of fine microkarst veins (silt and clay-lined cracks), which occupy an estimated 10-25% of the rock volume; (2) regularly interspersed, vertically oriented solution pipes, locally occupying as much as 10-20% of the volume of the unit; and (3) a few, poorly-defined shallow depressions up to 50cm deep and 120cm in diameter (p. 167).

Tandon and Bird (1997) describe several prominent calcrete horizons up to 1 meter thick and tracable for more than 30km along strike present within coal-bearing cyclothems of the Sydney Basin of eastern Canada. The limestones beneath the calcretes preserves large polygonal dessication cracks up to 1m deep. Unlike the pedogenic features present in the underclays, which imply a submerged, humid climate, the nodular calcretes imply a relatively more arid climate during lowstands within the cyclothems. Tandon and Bird note that the "alteration of calcrete and coal is an unusual aspect of the cyclothems for, in modern landscapes, calcretes are generally developed in relatively arid settings and coals in relatively humid settings" (p. 44). The repeated alteration of these paleosols suggests that climate changed cyclicaly during deposition of the cyclothems. In other words, the eustatic cycles which created the cyclothems were linked to climate such that lowstands of the sea were associated with arid conditions, and highstands with humid conditions. Tandon and Gibling note that a similar lowstand-aridity correlation has been documented for the Australian interior during the past 300k years (e.g. Kershaw and Nanson 1993).

Vertical pedogenic trends, in conjunction with relative sea-level curves for the Sydney cyclothems, indicate that relatively arid, seasonal conditions prevailed during lowstand and early transgression. The relatively mature, nodular calcretes reflect prolonged periods of minimal sedimentation during lowstand. . . In contrast, relatively humid conditions prevailed during during late transgressin and highstand, with the formation of peat (coal) and hydromorphic paleosols. These observations are in accord with Quaternary climatic evidence, and suggest that climate and relative changes in sea level were linked (p. 64).

Roof shale rhythmites as a depositional chronometer

Many Carboniferous coals in the mid US (Illinois, Kansas, Indiana) are overlain by "roof shales" containing rhythmic laminae sequences interpreted as tidal rhythmites (e.g. Archer at al. 1995; Greb and Archer 1998). These roof shales often bury upright trees above coals. These sedimentary deposits are very distinctive in appearance. They usually consist of sand-mud couplets, each about 1mm-1cm thick. These couplets are usually flat (planar) to slightly wavy. The individual couplets are arranged in larger sequences of about 10-12 couplets, which progressively increase and then decrease in thickness. Seperating each sequence of couplets is a distinct dark band, which in modern examples represent bacterial colonization of the tidal flats during the period of neap emergence. Similar tidal rhythmites have been documented burying trees in Alaska, near the town of Portage, where coseismic subsidence in the year 1964 resulted in the aggradation of tidal flats over spruce groves near the coast (Atwater et al., 2001).

Fountains of the Great Deep

Genesis 7:11In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened.


Water is what gives our planet its beautiful blue color and is critical for the existence of life as we know it. Our entire planet is nicknamed after it - the "blue planet", or "pale blue dot". A new study led by geophysicist Steve Jacobsen of Northwestern University and seismologist Brandon Schmandt from the University of New Mexico has yielded evidence that vast oceans worth of water are tied up within Earth’s mantle. The results are published in Science.

Four hundred miles beneath North America, Schmandt and Jacobsen found deep pockets of magma, which indicates the presence of water. However, this isn’t water in any of the three forms we are familiar with. The pressure coupled with the high temperatures forces the water to split into a hydroxyl radical (OH) which is then able to combine with the minerals on a molecular level.

This water, which is bound up in rock, could indicate the largest water reservoir on the planet. It is believed that plate tectonics cycle the water in and out, and the water affects the partial melting of rock in the mantle.

"Geological processes on the Earth's surface, such as earthquakes or erupting volcanoes, are an expression of what is going on inside the Earth, out of our sight," said Jacobsen in apress release. "I think we are finally seeing evidence for a whole-Earth water cycle, which may help explain the vast amount of liquid water on the surface of our habitable planet. Scientists have been looking for this missing deep water for decades.”

To laymen, the Earth has three layers: crust, mantle, and core. It is a bit more complex than that, as the mantle itself has four distinct layers: lithosphere, athenosphere, upper mantle, and lower mantle. Even among those layers, different areas have different features. Many scientists have assumed that the transition zone between the upper and lower mantle (250-410 miles beneath the surface) contained water, though this experiment is the first to provide the necessary direct evidence to support that theory.

”Melting of rock at this depth is remarkable because most melting in the mantle occurs much shallower, in the upper 50 miles," said Schmandt, the paper’s lead author. "If there is a substantial amount of H2O in the transition zone, then some melting should take place in areas where there is flow into the lower mantle, and that is consistent with what we found.”

For this study, the researchers utilized the USArray, which collects information from over 2,000 seismometers in the United States. The observations were supported by computer models that replicated conditions from the transition zone. The key to storing the water, they found, is a mineral called ringwoodite, which is a form of olivine that exists under high pressure and temperature.

"The ringwoodite is like a sponge, soaking up water," Jacobsen said. "There is something very special about the crystal structure of ringwoodite that allows it to attract hydrogen and trap water. This mineral can contain a lot of water under conditions of the deep mantle.”

According to experiments, at depths around 400 miles, the ringwoodite should melt partially. This was done by using diamonds to exert tremendous pressure on the synthesized ringwoodite while subjecting it to high temperatures. The effects were studied with a combination of x-rays, electrons, and light. The researchers found that these experimental conditions supported observations from USArray.


"When a rock with a lot of H2O moves from the transition zone to the lower mantle it needs to get rid of the H2O somehow, so it melts a little bit," Schmandt said. "This is called dehydration melting.” After the rock melts, the researchers say, the water becomes trapped in the transition zone, creating a reservoir.


In March, a paper published in Nature from a different research group used a series of techniques including x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy to confirm that a ringwoodite sample (the first to ever come from within the Earth and not just created in a lab) had a had a water content above one percent. This quantity matches what has been predicted by Schmandt’s experiments. Earth’s mantle is so vast, that if 1% of the material in the transition zone is actually water, it would represent a reservoir three times larger than all of Earth’s oceans combined.

"Whether or not this unique sample is representative of the Earth's interior composition is not known, however," Jacobsen said. "Now we have found evidence for extensive melting beneath North America at the same depths corresponding to the dehydration of ringwoodite, which is exactly what has been happening in my experiments.”

Tuesday, November 3, 2015

MUSLIM NGA NGA SA PAGPAPALIWANAG SA DIOS




Ganito ang sabi ng Panginoon, Ang yari ng Egipto, at ang kalakal ng Etiopia, at ang mga Sabeo, sa mga taong matatangkad, ay magsisiparito sa iyo, at sila'y magiging iyo; sila'y magsisisunod sa iyo, sila'y magsisidaang may tanikala; at sila'y mangagpapatirapa sa iyo, sila'y magsisipamanhik sa iyo, na mangagsasabi, Tunay na ang Dios ay nasa iyo; at walang ibang Dios...."Kayo'y mangagpahayag, at mangagpasapit; oo, magsanggunian silang magkakasama: sinong nagpakilala nito mula nang mga unang panahon? sinong nagpahayag niyaon nang una? hindi baga ang Panginoon? at walang Dios liban sa akin: isang ganap na Dios at Tagapagligtas; walang iba liban sa akin. Kayo'y magsitingin sa akin, at kayo'y mangaligtas, lahat na taga wakas ng lupa: sapagka't ako'y Dios, at walang iba liban sa akin. (Isaias 45:14,21-22)

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Sabi ng Dios walang Dios liban sa AKIN?
At walang Ibang Dios ?

Eh Ano ang Ibig sabihin ng Dios na liban sa kanya ay walang Dios 

Alin Itong Ibang Dios na wala na liban sa kanya 

Ito ay tumutukoy sa mga larawang Binubuo na tinatawag na ibang Dios.

At ang labis niyaon ay ginagawa niyang dios, sa makatuwid baga'y kaniyang larawang inanyuan: kaniyang pinagpapatirapaan at sinasamba, at dinadalanginan, at nagsasabi, Iligtas mo ako; sapagka't ikaw ay aking dios. (Isaias 44:17)



Huwag kang magkakaroon ng ibang mga dios sa harap ko. Huwag kang gagawa para sa iyo ng larawang inanyuan o ng kawangis man ng anomang anyong nasa itaas sa langit, o ng nasa ibaba sa lupa, o ng nasa tubig sa ilalim ng lupa: (Exodo 20:3-4)

duon sa mga dios na ito walang gaya ang Dios dito dahil mga huwad na dios ang mga ito gawa lamang ng kamay ng tao bawal nga itulad ang Tunay na Dios sa mga dios na ito.(Mga Gawa 17:29)

Pero ang Ama, Anak at Banal na Espiritu (Mateo 28:19) mag kagaya ang mga Ito sa larawan at wangis .(Genesis 1:26) at sila ay Isa.(Genesis 3:22,Juan 10:30) kaya nga si Cristo isang ganap na Dios (1 Juan 5:20) at Tagapagligtas.(Lucas 2:11)
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"Ganito ang sabi ng Panginoon, ng Hari ng Israel, at ng kaniyang Manunubos, na Panginoon ng mga hukbo, Ako ang una, at ako ang huli; at liban sa akin ay walang Dios. At sino, na gaya ko, tatawag, at magpapahayag, at magaayos sa ganang akin, mula nang aking itatag ang matandang bayan? at ang mga bagay na dumarating, at ang mangyayari, ay ipahahayag nila. Kayo'y huwag mangatakot, o magsipangilabot man: hindi ko baga ipinahayag sa iyo nang una, at ipinakilala? at kayo ang aking mga saksi. May Dios baga liban sa akin? oo, walang malaking Bato; ako'y walang nakikilalang iba. ......"Ganito ang sabi ng Panginoon, ng iyong Manunubos, at niyang naganyo sa iyo mula sa bahay-bata, Ako ang Panginoon na gumagawa ng lahat na bagay; na naglaladlad, na magisa ng langit; na naglalatag ng lupa; (Isaias 44:6-8,24)
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Wala namang Duda na ang Dios na magisa ang nagladlad ng langit at naglalatag ng lupa dahil Isa tlaga sila (Genesis 3:22,Juan 10:30)

At sa gitna ng mga dios na ginawa ng tao para sambahin wala duon may nakikilala ang tunay na Dios kaya ang sabi ng Tunay na Dios walang malaking Bato ,Ako'Y walang nakikilalang Iba.

hindi lang kasi Ito naiintindihan ng mga Muslim at ng INC ni Manalo kaya nalilito sila.
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Kanino ninyo ako itutulad, at ipaparis, at iwawangis ako, upang kami ay magkagaya?..."Inyong alalahanin ang mga dating bagay ng una: sapagka't ako'y Dios, at walang iba liban sa akin; ako'y Dios, at walang gaya ko; (Isaias 46:5,9)
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Tama rin ang Talata na ito nagtatanong ang Dios kung kanino siya Itutulad at ipaparis at iwawangis upang sila ay magkagaya ?

Ito ay tanong Dios sa mga tao na itinutulad siya sa mga larawang Inanyuan na kanilang dinidios .

kaya kung Ibaba lang natin ang basa ganito ang ating mababasa.

Sila'y dumudukot ng maraming ginto sa supot, at tumitimbang ng pilak sa timbangan, sila'y nagsisiupa ng panday-ginto, at kaniyang ginagawang dios; sila'y nangagpapatirapa, oo, sila'y nagsisisamba. Pinapasan nila siya sa balikat, dinadala nila siya, at inilalagay siya sa kaniyang dako, at siya'y nakatayo; mula sa kaniyang dako ay hindi siya makikilos: oo, may dadaing sa kaniya, gayon ma'y hindi siya makasasagot, o makapagliligtas man sa kaniya sa kaniyang kabagabagan. (Isaias 46:6-7)

kaya ang SABI NG DIOS ...sapagka't ako'y Dios, at walang iba liban sa akin; ako'y Dios, at walang gaya ko...saan duon sa mga larawang inanyuan na ginawang dios ng mga tao walang gaya ang DIOS duon.

Ang layo uli ng pagkaintindi ng mga Muslim at ng mga INC ni Manalo.
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Kaya't ikaw ay dakila, Oh Panginoong Dios: sapagka't walang gaya mo, o may ibang Dios pa bukod sa iyo, ayon sa lahat na aming naririnig ng aming mga pakinig. (1 Samuel 7:22)
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Tulad ng sinasabi natin ng paulit -ulit wala naman talaga gaya ang Dios o may ibang Dios pa bukod sa Tunay na Dios .

Saan duon uli sa gitna ng mga huwad na dios kahit isa-isahin mupa ang mga yan wala kang may mahanap na gaya ng tunay na Dios 

wala duon may kagaya ang Dios dahil mga huwad mga iyon.(Galacia 4:8)
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Sapagka't ikaw ay dakila, at gumagawa ng kagilagilalas na mga bagay: ikaw na magisa ang Dios. (Awit 86:10)
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Sapagka't IKAW ang tinutukoy dito ay ang "Elohim" na itong "Elohim" na Ito ay binubuo ito ng magka NATIN.(Genesis 1:26) ibig sabihin binubuo ito ng Ama , ng Anak at ng Banal na espiritu.(Mateo 28:19)

kaya ibig sabihin nito IKAW (Elohim) ang magisa ang Dios.

Bagsak uli unawa ng muslim sa talata na ito hindi nila napapatunay na ABSULUTE ONE lang talaga ang Dios na tinutukoy sa Biblia kaya NGA-NGA sila.

Monday, November 2, 2015

MOUNTAIN ROOTS




Job 28:9
People assault the flinty rock with their hands and lay bare the roots of the mountains.


Is there any evidence that mountains have such deep roots? Yes, there is abundant evidence from measurements of gravity over and near mountain ranges. Let's first digress briefly to the equation that specifies the force of gravitational attraction between two masses that are separated by a distance r.


F= G * m1 * m2 / (r * r)

Here, G is a constant (the universal gravitational constant), and m1 and m2 are the masses of objects 1 and 2. The equation thus indicates that as the distance between two objectsincreases, the gravitational attraction between them decreases as the square of the distance.

If the earth were perfectly spherical (i.e. no topography) and lacked any variation in density, then a mass that is hanging from a string (a plumb bob) would always point directly toward the earth's center. In the 18th century, French scientists on an expedition to South America to measure the distance of a degree of latitude noted that the great mass of the Andes mountain belt represented additional mass that would exert its own gravitational pull on a plumb bob that would deflect the plumb bob from "vertical" toward the mountain range. They thus estimated the mass of the mountain range and then predicted how much the vertical deflection should be. To their surprise, they found that the mass was not deflected as far as they predicted - they thus postulated that a "deficit" of mass beneath the mountain range had to exist. The mass deficit was a buoyant crustal root that extended down into the denser surrounding mantle.

Since the 18th century, many more gravity surveys of mountain ranges have been completed and they indicate that mountain ranges are often (but not always) accompanied by a mass deficit. For example, if one measures the gravitational attraction at many points in or above a mountain range and one then corrects the measured gravity signal for a variety of effects, one of which includes the contribution from topography above sea level (this is done by estimating the gravitational attraction that results from a given volume of material with a density equivalent to that of continental crust), the gravity field over a mountain range should be the same as the gravity field for flat regions that flank the mountain range. Instead, the corrected gravity field over the mountain range typically has values lower than the surrounding flat regions. This gravity "deficit" is evidence for a mass "deficit" beneath the mountain range - such a deficit can only occur if the density of material beneath the range is lower than the density of the material beneath the flat-lying regions. Thus, less dense or buoyant material underlies many mountains - this buoyant material is the "root" that is predicted to exist based on Archimede's principle.

WHY WE CANNOT LOOK AT THE SUN



A partial solar eclipse seen over trees near Dublin, Ireland
Job 37:21
We cannot look at the sun, for it shines brightly in the sky when the wind clears away the clouds.


Looking at the Sun directly can quickly be very harmful and I understand that doctors can not repair retinas.

When a person looks repeatedly or for a long time at the Sun without proper protection for the eyes, this photochemical retinal damage may be accompanied by a thermal injury - the high level of visible and near-infrared radiation causes heating that literally cooks the exposed tissue. This thermal injury or photocoagulation destroys the rods and cones, creating a small blind area. The danger to vision is significant because photic retinal injuries occur without any feeling of pain (there are no pain receptors in the retina), and the visual effects do not occur for at least several hours after the damage is done [Pitts, 1993].

Snapping a selfie during Friday’s solar eclipse could lead to eye damage, specialists have warned.

Camera phones did not exist during the last eclipse in 1999 but now millions are likely to be tempted to take a photograph of themselves during the rare astronomical alignment later this week.

The College of Optometrists has warned that taking pictures using an iPhone or camera can be as dangerous as looking directly at the Sun, which can burn the retina and cause blindness.
Even wearing sunglasses will not protect eyes against potential damage, and anyone attempting a selfie is advised to wear specialist shades which block out the dangerous rays and prevent solar maculopathy – the destruction of the centre of the retina caused by solar radiation.

Daniel Hardiman-McCartney, clinical adviser at the College of Optometrists said: “Taking a selfie could potentially put you at risk as you may end up accidentally looking directly at the Sun while aligning yourself and your phone.

"Whilst a solar eclipse is an amazing and infrequent event, the general public must remember that they should not look directly at the Sun or at a solar eclipse, either with the naked eye, even if dark filters such as sunglasses or photographic negatives are used, nor through optical equipment such as cameras, binoculars or telescopes.

EARTH CORE


Job 28:5 New Living Translation
Food is grown on the earth above, but down below, the earth is melted as by fire.

There are three main sources of heat in the deep earth: (1) heat from when the planet formed and accreted, which has not yet been lost; (2) frictional heating, caused by denser core material sinking to the center of the planet; and (3) heat from the decay of radioactive elements.

CROSS SECTION shows Earth's structure.

It takes a rather long time for heat to move out of the earth. This occurs through both "convective" transport of heat within the earth's liquid outer core and solid mantle and slower "conductive" transport of heat through nonconvecting boundary layers, such as the earth's plates at the surface. As a result, much of the planet's primordial heat, from when the earth first accreted and developed its core, has been retained.

The amount of heat that can arise through simple accretionary processes, bringing small bodies together to form the proto-earth, is large: on the order of 10,000 kelvins (about 18,000 degrees Farhenheit). The crucial issue is how much of that energy was deposited into the growing earth and how much was reradiated into space. Indeed, the currently accepted idea for how the moon was formed involves the impact or accretion of a Mars-size object with or by the proto-earth. When two objects of this size collide, large amounts of heat are generated, of which quite a lot is retained. This single episode could have largely melted the outermost several thousand kilometers of the planet.

Additionally, descent of the dense iron-rich material that makes up the core of the planet to the center would produce heating on the order of 2,000 kelvins (about 3,000 degrees F). The magnitude of the third main source of heat--radioactive heating--is uncertain. The precise abundances of radioactive elements (primarily potassium, uranium and thorium) are is poorly known in the deep earth.

In sum, there was no shortage of heat in the early earth, and the planet's inability to cool off quickly results in the continued high temperatures of the Earth's interior. In effect, not only do the earth's plates act as a blanket on the interior, but not even convective heat transport in the solid mantle provides a particularly efficient mechanism for heat loss. The planet does lose some heat through the processes that drive plate tectonics, especially at mid-ocean ridges. For comparison, smaller bodies such as Mars and the Moon show little evidence for recent tectonic activity or volcanism.

We derive our primary estimate of the temperature of the deep earth from the melting behavior of iron at ultrahigh pressures. We know that the earth's core depths from 2,886 kilometers to the center at 6,371 kilometers (1,794 to 3,960 miles), is predominantly iron, with some contaminants. How? The speed of sound through the core (as measured from the velocity at which seismic waves travel across it) and the density of the core are quite similar to those seen in of iron at high pressures and temperatures, as measured in the laboratory. Iron is the only element that closely matches the seismic properties of the earth's core and is also sufficiently abundant present in sufficient abundance in the universe to make up the approximately 35 percent of the mass of the planet present in the core.

The earth's core is divided into two separate regions: the liquid outer core and the solid inner core, with the transition between the two lying at a depth of 5,156 kilometers (3,204 miles). Therefore, If we can measure the melting temperature of iron at the extreme pressure of the boundary between the inner and outer cores, then this lab temperature should reasonably closely approximate the real temperature at this liquid-solid interface. Scientists in mineral physics laboratories use lasers and high-pressure devices called diamond-anvil cells to re-create these hellish pressures and temperatures as closely as possible.

Those experiments provide a stiff challenge, but our estimates for the melting temperature of iron at these conditions range from about 4,500 to 7,500 kelvins (about 7,600 to 13,000 degrees F). As the outer core is fluid and presumably convecting (and with an additional correction for the presence of impurities in the outer core), we can extrapolate this range of temperatures to a temperature at the base of Earth's mantle (the top of the outer core) of roughly 3,500 to 5,500 kelvins (5,800 to 9,400 degrees F) at the base of the earth's mantle.

The bottom line here is simply that a large part of the interior of the planet (the outer core) is composed of somewhat impure molten iron alloy. The melting temperature of iron under deep-earth conditions is high, thus providing prima facie evidence that the deep earth is quite hot.

Gregory Lyzenga is an associate professor of physics at Harvey Mudd College. He provided some additional details on estimating the temperature of the earth's core:

How do we know the temperature? The answer is that we really don't--at least not with great certainty or precision. The center of the earth lies 6,400 kilometers (4,000 miles) beneath our feet, but the deepest that it has ever been possible to drill to make direct measurements of temperature (or other physical quantities) is just about 10 kilometers (six miles).

Ironically, the core of the earth is by far less accessible more inaccessible to direct probing than would be the surface of Pluto. Not only do we not have the technology to "go to the core," but it is not at all clear how it will ever be possible to do so.

As a result, scientists must infer the temperature in the earth's deep interior indirectly. Observing the speed at which of passage of seismic waves pass through the earth allows geophysicists to determine the density and stiffness of rocks at depths inaccessible to direct examination. If it is possible to match up those properties with the properties of known substances at elevated temperatures and pressures, it is possible (in principle) to infer what the environmental conditions must be deep in the earth.

The problem with this is that the conditions are so extreme at the earth's center that it is very difficult to perform any kind of laboratory experiment that faithfully simulates conditions in the earth's core. Nevertheless, geophysicists are constantly trying these experiments and improving on them, so that their results can be extrapolated to the earth's center, where the pressure is more than three million times atmospheric pressure.

The bottom line of these efforts is that there is a rather wide range of current estimates of the earth's core temperature. The "popular" estimates range from about 4,000 kelvins up to over 7,000 kelvins (about 7,000 to 12,000 degrees F).

If we knew the melting temperature of iron very precisely at high pressure, we could pin down the temperature of the Earth's core more precisely, because it is largely made up of molten iron. But until our experiments at high temperature and pressure become more precise, uncertainty in this fundamental property of our planet will persist.

-Scientific American Journal-