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Monday, May 18, 2015

Water Properties and Measurements



"... and apportioned the waters by measure,(Job 28:25)


Doctors use instruments like thermometers and stethoscopes to check on your health. Scientists use instruments like Secchi (sek’-ee) disks, probes, nets, gauges, and meters to determine how healthy the water is. They take measurements of the physical and chemical condition of the water and the health of the critters that live in it.

Scientists collect water in lots of different ways. They use boats to go out in the middle of lakes, they wade into streams wearing rubber boots that go up to their chests, they drop buckets over the sides of bridges—they’ll do almost anything to get a sample.

Water samples aren’t the only things scientists collect. They take photographs from airplanes and even satellites. They use their eyes to observe what’s happening along streams, lakes, and bays to get an overall sense of the health of the water. They also collect fish, plants, dirt, and aquatic bugs, and study what’s happening on the land that’s next to the water.

What do scientists measure?

Temperature - When you don’t feel well, chances are the first thing someone does is take your temperature. Scientists measure water temperature for several reasons. First, it determines the kinds of animals that can survive in a stream. If the temperature gets too hot or too cold for some organisms, they die. Temperature also can affect the chemistry of the water. For example, warm water holds less oxygen than cold water. A healthy cluster of trees and vegetation next to a stream or river helps keep temperatures cool for trout and other fish.
Dissolved oxygen probe

Dissolved oxygen - Scientists measure dissolved oxygen, or DO (pronounced dee-oh). This tells them how much oxygen is available in the water for fish and other aquatic organisms to breathe. Healthy waters generally have high levels of DO (some areas, like swamps, naturally have low levels of DO). Just like human beings, aquatic life needs oxygen to survive. Several factors can affect how much DO is in the water. These include temperature, the amount and speed of flowing water, the plants and algae that produce oxygen during the day and take it back in at night, pollution in the water, and the composition of the stream bottom. (Gravelly or rocky bottoms stir up the water more than muddy ones do, creating bubbles that put more oxygen into the water.)

pH - Scientists measure pH to determine the concentration of hydrogen in the water (The p stands for “potential of” and the H is hydrogen.) pH ranges from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic), with 7 being neutral. Most waters range from 6.5 to 8.5. Changes in pH can affect how chemicals dissolve in the water and whether organisms are affected by them. High acidity can be deadly to fish and other aquatic organisms.

The U.S. Geological Survey has been measuring water for decades. Millions of measurements and analyses have been made. Some measurements are taken almost every time water is sampled and investigated, no matter where in the U.S. the water is being studied. Even these simple measurements can sometimes reveal something important about the water and the environment around it.

The results of a single measurement of a water's properties are actually less important than looking at how the properties vary over time. For example, if you take the pH of the creek behind your school and find that it is 5.5, you might say "Wow, this water is acidic!" But, a pH of 5.5 might be "normal" for that creek. It is similar to how my normal body temperature (when I'm not sick) is about 97.5 degrees, but my third-grader's normal temperature is "really normal" -- right on the 98.6 mark. As with our temperatures, if the pH of your creek begins to change, then you might suspect that something is going on somewhere that is affecting the water, and possibly, the water quality. So, often, the changes in water measurements are more important than the actual measured values.

pH is only one measurement of a water body's health; there are others, too. Choose from this list to find out what they are and how they can reveal something about water.

Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electrical current. It is highly dependent on the amount of dissolved solids (such as salt) in the water. Pure water, such as distilled water, will have a very low specific conductance, and sea water will have a high specific conductance. Rainwater often dissolves airborne gasses and airborne dust while it is in the air, and thus often has a higher specific conductance than distilled water. Specific conductance is an important water-quality measurement because it gives a good idea of the amount of dissolved material in the water.

High specific conductance indicates high dissolved-solids concentration; dissolved solids can affect the suitability of water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. At higher levels, drinking water may have an unpleasant taste or odor or may even cause gastrointestinal distress. Additionally, high dissolved-solids concentration can cause deterioration of plumbing fixtures and appliances. Relatively expensive water-treatment processes, such as reverse osmosis, are needed to remove excessive dissolved solids from water.

Agriculture also can be adversely affected by high-specific-conductance water, as crops cannot survive if the water they use is too saline, for instance. Agriculture can also be the cause of increases in the specific conductance of local waters. When water is used for irrigation, part of the water evaporates or is consumed by plants, concentrating the original amount of dissolved solids in less water; thus, the dissolved-solids concentration and the specific conductance in the remaining water is increased. The remaining higher specific-conductance water reenters the river as irrigation-return flow. In a USGS study in Colorado, USA, specific conductance was found to vary during the year as a result of the temporal variability of streamflow. As this chart shows, specific conductance generally was lowest in the Arkansas RIver near Avondale, Colorado, in May to August, when streamflow generally was largest, and increased with decreasing streamflow in the fall, winter, and spring.

Often in school, students do an experiment where they connect a battery to a light bulb and run two wires from the battery into a beaker of water. When the wires are put into a beaker of distilled water, the light will not light. But, the bulb does light up when the beaker contains salt water (saline). In the saline water, the salt has dissolved, releasing free electrons, and the water will conduct an electrical current.
Turbidity

Turbidity is the amount of particulate matter that is suspended in water. Turbidity measures the scattering effect that suspended solids have on light: the higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity. Material that causes water to be turbid include:
clay
silt
finely divided organic and inorganic matter
soluble colored organic compounds
plankton
microscopic organisms

Turbidity makes the water cloudy or opaque. The picture to the left shows highly turbid water from a tributary (where construction was probably taking place) flowing into the less turbid water of the Chattahoochee River in Georgia. Turbidity is measured by shining a light through the water and is reported in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). During periods of low flow (base flow), many rivers are a clear green color, and turbidities are low, usually less than 10 NTU. During a rainstorm, particles from the surrounding land are washed into the river making the water a muddy brown color, indicating water that has higher turbidity values. Also, during high flows, water velocities are faster and water volumes are higher, which can more easily stir up and suspend material from the stream bed, causing higher turbidities.

Turbidity can be measured in the laboratory and also on-site in the river. A handheld turbidity meter (left-side picture) measures turbidity of a water sample. The meter is calibrated using standard samples from the meter manufacturer. The picture with the three glass vials shows turbidity standards of 5, 50, and 500 NTUs. Once the meter is calibrated to correctly read these standards, the turbidity of a water sample can be taken.

State-of-the-art turbidity meters (left-side picture) are beginning to be installed in rivers to provide an instantaneous turbidity reading. The right-side picture shows a closeup of the meter. The large tube is the turbidity sensor; it reads turbidity in the river by shining a light into the water and reading how much light is reflected back to the sensor. The smaller tube contains a conductivity sensor to measure electrical conductance of the water, which is strongly influenced by dissolved solids (the two holes) and a temperature gauge (the metal rod).
Dissolved oxygen

You can't tell by looking at water that there is oxygen in it (unless you remember that chemical makeup of a water molecule is hydrogen and oxygen). But, if you look at a closed bottle of a soft drink, you don't see the carbon dioxide dissolved in that - until you shake it up and open the top. The oxygen dissolved in lakes, rivers, and oceans is crucial for the organisms and creatures living in it. As the amount of dissolved oxygen drops below normal levels in water bodies, the water quality is harmed and creatures begin to die off. Indeed, a water body can "die", a process called eutrophication.

Although water molecules contain an oxygen atom, this oxygen is not what is needed by aquatic organisms living in our natural waters. A small amount of oxygen, up to about ten molecules of oxygen per million of water, is actually dissolved in water. This dissolved oxygen is breathed by fish and zooplankton and is needed by them to survive.

Rapidly moving water, such as in a mountain stream or large river, tends to contain a lot of dissolved oxygen, while stagnant water contains little. Bacteria in water can consume oxygen as organic matter decays. Thus, excess organic material in our lakes and rivers can cause an oxygen-deficient situation to occur. Aquatic life can have a hard time in stagnant water that has a lot of rotting, organic material in it, especially in summer, when dissolved-oxygen levels are at a seasonal low.
Hardness

The amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water determines its "hardness." Water hardness varies throughout the United States. If you live in an area where the water is "soft," then you may never have even heard of water hardness. But, if you live in Florida, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Nebraska, South Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, or Indiana, where the water is relatively hard, you may notice that it is difficult to get a lather up when washing your hands or clothes. And, industries in your area might have to spend money to soften their water, as hard water can damage equipment. Hard water can even shorten the life of fabrics and clothes! Does this mean that students who live in areas with hard water keep up with the latest fashions since their clothes wear out faster?

AIR HAS WEIGHT SCIENCE PROBE


Job 28:25
When he gave to the wind its weight and apportioned the waters by measure,

Air Has Weight and Temperature Affects It? LESSON THEME This lesson has two activities that develop a basic understanding about the weight of air and its basic importance to understanding meteorology and to determine that a change in temperature of air affects its vertical movement. OBJECTIVES Students will • Experiment with the change in the position of a bar balancing a balloon inflated with air on one end and a noninflated balloon on the other end and the cause for this change • Write a procedure for investigating a research question • Identify factors affecting the dynamics of air in motion

To begin these air pressure experiments wave your hand back and forth in the air. It's easy to move your hand around because air pressure is pressing onto your hands in all directions. Air actually weighs 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level. That means that every square inch of your body is being pressed on by 14.7 pounds of pressure.

Materials
Balloons
String
Scotch tape
Ruler(stick or clothes hanger may also be used
Needle or sharp pin
Directions
Cut three strings approximately 12 inches long. 

Blow up two balloons so they are the same size. Tie a string to each balloon. 

Tie one of the balloons to each end of the ruler tight enough so the string will not slip. 

Tie a string loosely around the center part of the ruler so that you can slip the knot back and forth until the balloons are balanced. 

Tape the string in place so it will not move when the balloon is deflated. Prick one of the balloons with a needle or sharp pin. 

Watch how the ruler moves upward on the side where the balloon was deflated. If this does not happen it might be because the center string was not tight enough and moved when the balloon was deflated. 

Try the experiment several more times to see if the experiment works consistently. This is the way real scientists do their work. They test their hypothesis several times to make sure the same thing happens consistently.

Extending the experiment

Try these air pressure experiments. Balance two deflated balloons on a ruler or stick. Take one balloon off the stick and inflate it. Return the balloon to see what happens. Try balancing several balloons on a yard stick. When you have the yardstick in balance. Predict what you think will happen if you deflate all the balloons, one at a time, from left to right. After writing down your prediction, try this air pressure experiment.
Science behind the experiment

Air is a real substance and it has weight. That is why it weighs 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level. What scientists mean when they give this figure is that if a column of air one square inch in size from sea level to the top of the atmosphere above Earth would weigh 14.7 pounds.

If you travel up over a mountain pass air pressure decreases as you move upward. At 18,000 feet above the Earth the air pressure is approximately 7.35 pounds per square inch or half the atmosphere at sea level.

GENESIS CREATION SUPPORT BY SCIENCE


Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind." - Albert Einstein, 1941

Genesis, in the first chapter of the Old Testament, is the biblical story of the creation of Earth and life and tells the story in the form of a seven-day period. This essay is not about the seven days (here we will assume that the "days" are allegorical); this is about what Genesis says happened on each of those seven days of creation.

The following explores the possibility of reconciling what's in each of the seven days of creation in Genesis with the prevailing information of contemporary science. I think you may find the results quite astounding.

This is not the first time this has been attempted, but this is a shorter and more readable version.

It has been reviewed by a prominent rabbi and a prominent professor of biological, geological, and earth sciences.

Historians say the Old Testament of the Bible, including Genesis, is an anthology of literature taken from poems, songs, oral stories and ancient scrolls. It was written mostly in Hebrew over many centuries by many people, including Hebrew scholars, various scribes, and others. The religious interpretation, according to the Bible, says Genesis was written by Moses as directed by God. Either way, it was written over 4000 years ago.

Below are listed the seven days of creation, day by day, and what happened according to Genesis in the Old Testament. With each day we examine how it corresponds with current scientific information. In this comparison, the seven days are not important; it is the description of what took place on each day, and in what order, that is relevant.

Genesis and Science: A Comparison

Genesis: (First day) -- 15 billion to 4.5 billion years ago

"In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth."

Science:

At some point in the history of time between, 9 and 15 billion years ago, the origins of the universe began. There was absolutely nothing but emptiness, when suddenly an infinitely hot and dense spot called the singularity appeared. From that spot there was an unimaginable gigantic explosion, called the Big Bang, and within less than a fraction of a second, the entire universe was formed. This was the start of everything that exists -- matter, energy, time and every atom that was ever created. The sun and earth itself were estimated to have been formed about 4.5 billion years ago.

This is the accepted scientific explanation for the start of the universe.

But science can't tell us everything. The great mystery is how that hot, dense spot (called the singularity), the first thing in the emptiness, the start of the universe, got there? Science tells that some unimaginable power must have put it there because from it came everything that exists in the universe. Some scientists just say "an unimaginable power" put it there, while others give a name to "that unimaginable power": they call it God. The greatest living astrophysical scientist, Stephen Hawking, says, "Anyone who chooses to believe in a Universal Creator is standing on ground as solid as a scientist who denies Creative Purpose as First Cause. Because of the laws these same scientists have discovered, there is absolutely no way to tell what made it happen. Whatever you choose is an act of pure faith."

So the claim that God created Heaven and Earth matches with science.

Genesis: (First day)

"God said, 'Let there be light.'"

Science:

During the Big Bang, electrons caused very small packets of light making the whole universe glow.

The sun was formed 4.5 billion years ago along with the Earth.

So the start of the universe and then the start of the sun and Earth on the first day of Genesis definitely coincide with contemporary science.


Genesis: (Second day) -- 4.5 billion to 3.75 billion years ago

"God said, 'Let there be firmament in the midst of the waters and let it separate the waters from the waters.'"

Science:

Water-rich asteroids and protoplanets collided with prehistoric earth, bringing water. Later, gaseous emissions from volcanoes added additional water. This occurred approximately 4.4 billion years ago. Over the next several billion years, as the earth cooled, water vapor began to escape and condense in the earth's early atmosphere. Clouds formed and enormous amounts of water fell on the earth. The waters were separated, water on earth and water in the atmosphere. So day two fits with science and is in the correct order.

Genesis: (Third day) -- 3.75 billion years ago

"And God said, 'Let the waters under the Heaven be gathered together in one place and let the dry land appear.'"

Science:

The beginning of the oceans and the separation of the land mass areas occurred on Earth about 3.75 billion years ago. Again, it fits with science and is in the right order.

Genesis: (Third day)

"And God said, 'Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed and fruit trees bearing fruit.'"

Science:

This section of Genesis' third day is out of sequence. Plants, grass, and fruit bearing trees, did not appear until after sea creatures. Although microscopic single cell algae (bacteria or archaea microbes) are a plant and appeared at this time, it is not the advanced forms of plant life described in Genesis. Again, the appearance of flora did not take place at this time according to contemporary science.

Genesis: (Fourth day)

"And God said. 'Let there be light in the firmament of Heavens to separate the day from the night.'"

Science:

This phrase is confusing because the Sun's creation was earlier, so why is light mentioned here? There is nothing to compare here between Genesis and science. The open question is why light is repeated on day four.

There are a number of theories to explain this. One is by Dr. Gerald Schroeder, Ph.D., a professor of nuclear physics and earth and planetary sciences at MIT who spent five years on the staff of the MIT physics department. He is also a lecturer in science and spirituality. He contends that the sun, the moon, and the stars were already there but that the atmosphere was opaque. With the cooling of the Earth and the rise in atmospheric oxygen, the atmosphere became transparent, and there was light.

Another interesting theory is presented by Dr. Alan Parker, a respected evolutionary biologist and research fellow at Oxford University. He speculates that this second reference to light on day four of Genesis refers to the evolution of vision. If there was no vision, then there was, in a sense, no light. So the lights were "turned on" in the evolution of sight in animals. "To separate day from night" refers to the time before and after sight.

Genesis: (Fifth day) -- 3.5 billion years to 635 million years ago

"And God said, 'Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures. Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas...'"

Science:

This is exactly what happened. Life began in the sea. The earliest fossils of life, single-celled bacteria, are found in ancient rocks deposited in the oceans 3.5 billion years ago. By 1.2 billion years ago, the first complex multicellular life had evolved. The oldest evidence of full animal life in the oceans comes from about 635 million years ago.

Isn't it incredible that 4000 years ago, ancient man could have conceived that life started in the water?

Genesis: (Fifth day)

"'...and let the birds fly above the earth.'"

Science:

According to contemporary science, this is out of sequence. Birds did not appear until later. However, flying insects did appear at this time, and this could be a remote but possible explanation.

Genesis: (Sixth day) -- 250 million to about 6000 years ago

"And God said, 'Let the Earth bring forth living creatures according to their kind; cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kind.'"

Science:

This is exactly as science reports: life began in the water and then expanded onto land.

Genesis: (Sixth day)

"Then God created man in his own image ... Male and female created He them ... And God formed man of the dust of the ground ... He took one of Adam's ribs and made a woman."

Science:

Nothing in this section resembles science at all. The only correct thing is that man was at the end of the chain of life. One coincidence that has been noted is that just as Adam's rib was used to form another person, Eve, the first life forms, single-cell organisms, divided to form other single-cell organisms. Admittedly, this is a stretch.

Genesis: (Sixth day)

"God said, 'Be fruitful and multiply and fill the Earth and subdue it and have domination over fish of the sea and over birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the Earth.'"

Science:

It is obvious that today, man does have domination over every fish, every bird, and every living thing that moves across the Earth. Genesis was right: man dominates the Earth.

Genesis: (Seventh day)

"So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it because on it, God rested from all the work He had done."

Science:

"Blessed and hallowed the seventh day." This has nothing to do with science, but it is relevant in that what Genesis said has been reflected in life. Today all major religions have a holy day to rest: Muslims have Friday, Jews Saturday, and Christians Sunday. Other religions take a day of rest, and even nonbelievers do it. So that matches perfectly with Genesis. Still, many question the idea that God would rest. Why does God have to rest? Again, this is not a scientific question, but it's compelling nonetheless. But why not rest? Christ, Moses, and Mohammad all rested, so why not God?

A review of how the 12 elements of the biblical creation story compare to science.
Nine are scientifically correct, and just two are in the wrong order: birds and plants.


One is scientifically wrong: the creation of man.


Two are not relevant to science -- the hallowed seventh day, and the second mention of light.

When Genesis was written about 4000 years ago, humans were almost universally illiterate. The alphabet was being perfected, writing (not hieroglyphics) was still new, calendars were still not perfected, and books and paper didn't even exist.

But nevertheless, the writers of the Bible somehow figured out that creation occurred first with the universe, then the Earth, then light, then water, then land rising out of the water to separate land and sea, all in the proper order according to contemporary science.

Then, most amazingly of all, these ancient Hebrew scholars and Old Testament writers figured out, in accordance with modern science, that the origins of life started in the water. Scientific information on the subject was not developed until over 3500 years later.

Of course, the religious interpretation has a different answer to these questions. They say that Genesis is correct because when Moses wrote the first four chapters of Genesis, he received the information directly from God. So the creation of Earth and life is as God reported it. If a few things in Genesis are out of order, maybe science will later discover that Genesis was right.

So there you have it, the Bible and science.

The beginnings of earth and life as reported by Genesis correspond very closely with current scientific knowledge.

Did ancient man write Genesis without the help of God?

The answer is yes and no. It's a matter of pure faith and belief.

This essay is not about either point of view. It's about some interesting facts about science and religion.

People with different points of view are very passionate about this subject matter. Respect for each other's point of view is what's important in today's volatile world.

Thursday, May 14, 2015

CLOSE SKY OF HELIOSPHERE


"...He will close the sky..."Deuteronomy 11:17

God closed the sky "heaven" Our Solar system closed by Heliosphere

The heliosheath is the region of the heliosphere beyond the termination shock. Here the wind is slowed, compressed and made turbulent by its interaction with the interstellar medium. Its distance from the Sun is approximately 80 to 100 astronomical units (AU) at its closest point.


The heliosphere is the mammoth ‘bubble’ that marks the boundaries of the Sun’s magnetic influence and for many astronomers it’s as good a marker as any for what constitutes the beginning of interstellar space.


An interstellar probe is a space probe that has left—or is expected to leave—the Solar System and enterinterstellar space

The heliopause is the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium outside the Solar System. As the solar wind approaches the heliopause, it slows suddenly, forming a shock wave called the termination shock of the solar wind.




"...from one end of the sky to the other.(Matthew 24:31)


Objects within the heliosphere are affected by solar wind (the streams of plasma shot out by the sun) while anything in interstellar space is influenced primarily by the ‘interstellar medium’ – a hotchpotch of matter and energy that includes various forms of gasses, dust and cosmic rays. The uncertain borders between these regions are known as the heliosheath.

As you’d imagine, determining which side of the heliosheath Voyager 1 is on is pretty tricky, something akin to wandering along the Scottish-English border with your eyes closed and trying to work out which country you’re in by tasting the rain.

So what makes scientist so sure this time round? It’s all thanks to a recent tsunami of plasma released by the Sun. These cosmic events - which are expected, if not predictable - create shock waves that ripple through solar system and into the interstellar matter, and leave the Voyager 1 probe bobbing like a buoy after a ship has passed by.

"Normally, interstellar space is like a quiet lake," said Ed Stone of the California Institute of Technology, Voyager 1’s lead scientist since 1972. “But when our sun has a burst, it sends a shock wave outward that reaches Voyager about a year later. The wave causes the plasma surrounding the spacecraft to sing.”

Instruments on Voyager not only register these waves, but also measure quite precisely the oscillations of the surrounding plasma – allowing scientists to work out whether it’s currently in metaphorical deep water or still paddling in the shallows. The latest measurement - the third in a series of recent plasma waves - confirm that Voyager is a long way out.

Stone said: "The tsunami wave rings the plasma like a bell. While the plasma wave instrument lets us measure the frequency of this ringing, the cosmic ray instrument reveals what struck the bell - the shock wave from the sun."



Job 38:37

"...Or tip the water jars of the heavens,"



The Comet is the water of jars of the heavens


and God Sent rain by this comet ..."...and I will send rain on the face of the earth."(1 King's 18:1)...The LORD will open the heavens, the storehouse of his bounty, to send rain on your land in season and to bless all the work of your hands. You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none. (Deuteronomy 28:12)"Comets, trans-Neptunian objects or water-rich meteoroids (protoplanets) from the outer reaches of the main asteroid belt colliding with the Earth may have brought water to the world's oceans. Measurements of the ratio of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium point to asteroids, since similar percentage impurities in carbon-richchondrites were found in oceanic water. the oldest evidence for life on Earth dates back to about 3.85 billion years ago, around the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment.

SOUND IN SPACE



 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. -Psalms 19:1-3

The heavens  declare the GLORY OF GOD Scientist discovered the strange sounds "voice" in space that not heard but by using sophisticatedinstrument they record this sound in space it already revealed in Book of Psalms of David thousand of years before the discovery  .

This question may seems similar to a question already asked (Can you hear sound in space?) however, it is a very good question for the intellectually curious mind. So, is there sound in space? The answer is no. Sound is vibrations of air particles, so any “sound” that is heard in space has to come from other means such as from the electromagnetic spectrum and these waves are not sound. Light waves and radio waves (which are apart of the electromagnetic spectrum) in space, can be interpreted by radio equipment and then be translated into sound.
  
In space there are sound sources (e.g. explosion of stars, collision of asteroids, solar storms and so on) but they do no(and cannot) travel to be detected as how we hear sound here on Earth. Space being an almost perfect vacuum is not an efficient medium for sound to travel and be heard by ears. However, sounds can travel by air in the spacecraft through the metal of the ship. You can hear sounds in the spacecraft only due to air particles inside.Technically, if you are in a spaceship and it explodes, you would hear it before you die due to the air particles in the ship. Likewise, if another spacecraft was to explode not far from your ship, objects flying from that ship would hit your ship sending sound waves through the ship’s structure by vibration. This vibration would then be passed on to the air particles in your ship thus, causing you to hear it. Also, the exploding ship would release gases that allow sound to travel along its part but, this would very quickly diminish since the gas particles would readily spread out in the vastness of space (losing its density). Therefore, sound would die very quickly over a very short distance and any sounds carried by the gases from the explosion, would still be too faint for you to hear it in your space ship. If it is possible for any sound to be detected it could only be detectable only by the most sensitive microphone and not the ear. So, strictly speaking, in this case it is possible for sound to travel a very short distance but all in all, space is silent.


In space, nobody can hear you scream. Oh, not because sound doesn't exist there; you'd just get drowned out by the goddamn racket all that stoic-looking cosmic stuff is making. Sure, from the ground it looks all quiet and peaceful, but if you've got the right equipment to hear it, it's like the hallway of a college dorm up there, but without all the used condoms and crying teenage girls. Well, until Richard Branson finishes building his spaceship, anyway.


My god, is that...it is! The voice of the sun itself! O, giver of life, singer of the cosmic song: Your gentle embrace warms our flesh and grants us the universe's most precious gift. It sounds just like you'd imagine it, doesn't it? That gentle pulsing; it's so beautiful and serene, like the pumping of some gargantuan organ.

Yep, nice and relaxing, like a giant, beating heart. A giant, beating, extraterrestrial heart.

Made out of nuclear fire.


As a direct counterpoint to the passive throbbing of gargantuan fiery skyballs, here we have the sound of the Earth as recorded by our farthest satellites. Whereas the sun emits a womb-like tidal rhythm, the Earth - with that sinister bass and long, keening build-up - sounds more like the Deathstar charging up to fire. Seriously, those are trademark death-ray sound effects.

That's the real reason orbital paths grow increasingly large as you go farther out. It has nothing to do with physics; the other planets are just fucking terrified.

To be perfectly frank with you, this whole track is somewhat suspect. I can find no verifiable source that confirms it's actually from space -- let alone the work of aliens -- but after listening to it, I believe it. Let me explain why: It is the nature of all advanced civilizations, as they grow more liberated and removed from work, to become bored and jaded. Every truly advanced society, from the Romans to the Victorians to modern-day America suffers from this societal ennui. It takes more to get us excited for anything, but this especially manifests itself in sex.

Listen to about thirty five seconds in. Do you hear that? That, friends, is a hyper-intelligent being from beyond the stars...furiously masturbating. And that's why I say it has to be real: Only a civilization millennia ahead of us in both technical know-how and sexual depravity would beam recordings of themselves jerking off to far-flung planets light years away. This is Alien Chatroulette.


You can be forgiven for thinking this is fairly boring compared to the Sun or the Earth or Alien Dickrolling, but if you listen real closely, you can just hear some distant, muffled noises -- like old-timey sci-fi rayguns firing. But before you go imagining there's some epic sci-fi battle caught in a time-loop at the heart of it, know that it's far more likely that the black hole is just making cool raygun noises with its mouth to keep itself entertained. Because everybody knows black holes are the loveable retards of deep space phenomena.

Ah, finally! Jupiter delivers what we've been expecting from space all this time: Calm, soothing, generic new-agey crap. Somewhere, a man with a salt and pepper ponytail, a hemp vest and coke bottle glasses is falling asleep to this at this very moment. He will awaken in nine and a half hours, to tell his non-gender-specific life-partner Moonfry all about the lucid dream he's just had, where he was being birthed by mother Jupiter into the starry amniotic fluid of the very cosmos. They will then carpool their Zapcar to the local co-op, try to merge onto the highway at top speed (thirty five miles an hour) and, because he's too busy reflecting on the inky placenta of space-birth to focus on the road, they will both be crushed to death by a Foster Farms delivery truck. It will say 'All Natural' on the side.


Well, damn. Sure, all of these 'space songs' are kind of interesting, but it all sounds basically the same, doesn't it? Every planet is just another variation of the same basic sound-palette, which is that of a 1989 Casio Synthesizer set to play Marimba and dropped in the pool. You probably feel like you're about to nod off right now. And you know what? Fuck it. I got your page view. You go ahead, close your eyes, relax your core muscles, fast forward to 1:15 in, and drift off to the soothing sounds of Saturn:

Congratulations! Having dropped your psychic defenses before listening to that, your mind has now become home to the ravenous and furious ghosts of a long dead planet! Expect to scrawl mysterious runes across your cubicle walls for the rest of the afternoon, explode every electronic device you touch on your way home, and vomit magenta energy plasma across your significant other's screaming used-to-be-face when you go to make love tonight.

But hey, on the plus side: From now on, if somebody asks you what the scariest shit you've ever heard is, you can smile and state, matter-of-factly: "Saturn." When they blink at you in confusion, you can satisfy their curiosity by bringing up that video file and then voila! There's yet another mind ravaged by the screeching spirits of a murder planet. Because the only thing worse than being the mind-hive for a continent of spectral sociopaths, is being the only mind-hive for a continent of spectral sociopaths.

If you enjoy my stupid little columns every week, or you have any affection for me as a person, or even if you're new here and you only have an iota of temporary good-will toward this author in gratitude for a few laughs and the cool space shit, I only want one thing from you in return. I will not ask you to Stumble this, to Facebook it, to retweet it, to try and wedge it in between the endless LOLNarwhals of Reddit -- I won't even ask you to venture into the barren, forsaken wasteland that used to be Digg and hurl it into the howling maw of Kevin Rose -- just promise me one tiny little thing. Promise me you'll read this next sentence out loud:

Sunday, May 10, 2015

FLESH AND BLOOD IN SPACE



1 Corinthians 15:50

But this I say my brethren: flesh and blood cannot inherit The Kingdom of Heaven, neither does corruption inherit indestructibility.


Space is  Inhospitable place to our Human body :Our Human Body made of flesh and Blood has negative effect on SPACE:


Space is Inhospitable place, where exposure to the perpetual vacuum will make your blood boil and your body burst; alternatively, if neither of those things happen, you’re bound to instantly freeze into a human-popsicle. Meanwhile, many of these same films conveniently ignore the slightly more subtle, yet highly relevant hazards of prolonged spaceflight even in an enclosed vessel at normal atmospheric pressure.

spaceflight has many negative effects on the body.The most significant adverse effects of long-term weightlessness are muscle atrophy and deterioration of the skeleton (spaceflight osteopenia).Other significant effects include a slowing of cardiovascular system functions, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system. Lesser symptoms include fluid redistribution (causing the "moon-face" appearance typical in pictures of astronauts experiencing weightlessness),loss of body mass, nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, and excess flatulence. Most of these effects begin to reverse quickly upon return to Earth.



The engineering problems associated with leaving Earth and developing space propulsion systems have been examined for over a century, and millions of man-hours of research have been spent on them. In recent years there has been an increase in research on the issue of how humans can survive and work in space for extended and possibly indefinite periods of time. This question requires input from the physical and biological sciences and has now become the greatest challenge (other than funding) facing humanspace exploration. A fundamental step in overcoming this challenge is trying to understand the effects and impact of long-term space travel on the human body.



Direct exposure to the extreme environment of space

The environment of space is lethal without appropriate protection: the greatest threat in the vacuum of space derives from the lack of oxygen and pressure, although temperature and radiation also pose risks.

Extreme variations in temperature

In a vacuum, there is no medium for removing heat from the body by conduction or convection. Loss of heat is by radiation from the 310 K temperature of a person to the 3 K of outer space. This is a slow process, especially in a clothed person, so there is no danger of immediately freezing. Rapid evaporative cooling of skin moisture in a vacuum may create frost, particularly in the mouth, but this is not a significant hazard.

Exposure to the intense radiation of direct, unfiltered sunlight would lead to local heating, though that would likely be well distributed by the body's conductivity and blood circulation. Other solar radiation, particularly ultraviolet rays, however, may cause severe sunburn in a few seconds.

Increased radiation levels

Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere astronauts are exposed to high levels of radiation. A year in low-earth orbit results in a dose of radiation 10 times that of the annual dose on earth.High levels of radiation damagelymphocytes, cells heavily involved in maintaining the immune system; this damage contributes to the lowered immunity experienced by astronauts. Radiation has also recently been linked to a higher incidence of cataracts in astronauts. Outside the protection of low-earth orbit, galactic cosmic rays present further challenges to human spaceflight,[20] as the health threat from cosmic rays significantly increases the chances of cancer over a decade or more of exposure.Solar flare events (though rare) can give a fatal radiation dose in minutes. It is thought that protective shielding and protective drugs may ultimately lower the risks to an acceptable level.

Crew living on the International Space Station (ISS) are partially protected from the space environment by Earth's magnetic field, as the magnetosphere deflects solar wind around the earth and the ISS. Nevertheless, solar flares are powerful enough to warp and penetrate the magnetic defences, and so are still a hazard to the crew. The crew of Expedition 10 took shelter as a precaution in 2005 in a more heavily shielded part of the station designed for this purpose. However, beyond the limited protection of Earth'smagnetosphere, interplanetary manned missions are much more vulnerable. Lawrence Townsend of the University of Tennessee and others have studied the most powerful solar flare ever recorded. Radiation doses astronauts would receive from a flare of this magnitude could cause acute radiation sickness and possibly even death.
A video made by the crew of the International Space Station showing the Aurora Australis, which is caused by high-energy particles in the space environment.

There is scientific concern that extended spaceflight might slow down the body’s ability to protect itself against diseases.Radiation can penetrate living tissue and cause both short and long-term damage to the bone marrow stem cells which create the blood and immune systems. In particular, it causes 'chromosomal aberrations' in lymphocytes. As these cells are central to the immune system, any damage weakens the immune system, which means that in addition to increased vulnerability to new exposures, viruses already present in the body—which would normally be suppressed—become active. In space, T-cells (a form of lymphocyte) are less able to reproduce properly, and the T-cells that do reproduce are less able to fight off infection. Over time immunodeficiency results in the rapid spread of infection among crew members, especially in the confined areas of space flight systems.

Radiation has also been linked to a higher incidence of cataracts in astronauts. Soviet cosmonaut Valentin Lebedev, who spent 221 days in orbit in 1982 (an absolute record for stay in Earth’s orbit), lost his eyesight to progressive cataracts. Lebedev stated: “I suffered from a lot of radiation in space. It was all concealed back then, during the Soviet years, but now I can say that I caused damage to my health because of that flight.”

On 31 May 2013, The NASA scientists reported that a possible manned mission to Mars may involve a great radiation riskbased on the amount of energetic particle radiation detected by the RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory while traveling from the Earth to Mars in 2011-2012.
The effects of weightlessness
Astronauts on the ISS in weightless conditions. Michael Foale can be seen exercising in the foreground.

Following the advent of space stations that can be inhabited for long periods of time, exposure to weightlessness has been demonstrated to have some deleterious effects on human health. Humans are well-adapted to the physical conditions at the surface of the earth, and so in response to weightlessness, various physiological systems begin to change, and in some cases, atrophy. Though these changes are usually temporary, some do have a long-term impact on human health.

Short-term exposure to microgravity causes space adaptation syndrome, a self-limiting nausea caused by derangement of the vestibular system. Long-term exposure causes multiple health problems, one of the most significant being loss of bone and muscle mass. Over time these deconditioning effects can impair astronauts’ performance, increase their risk of injury, reduce their aerobic capacity, and slow down their cardiovascular system. As the human body consists mostly of fluids, gravity tends to force them into the lower half of the body, and our bodies have many systems to balance this situation. When released from the pull of gravity, these systems continue to work, causing a general redistribution of fluids into the upper half of the body. This is the cause of the round-faced 'puffiness' seen in astronauts. Redistributing fluids around the body itself causes balance disorders, distorted vision, and a loss of taste and smell.
Motion sickness
Main articles: Space adaptation syndrome and Motion sickness
Bruce McCandless floating free in orbit with a space suit and Manned Maneuvering Unit.



The most common problem experienced by humans in the initial hours of weightlessness is known as space adaptation syndrome or SAS, commonly referred to as space sickness. It is related to motion sickness, and arises as the vestibular system adapts to weightlessness.Symptoms of SAS include nausea and vomiting, vertigo, headaches, lethargy, and overall malaise. The first case of SAS was reported by cosmonaut Gherman Titov in 1961. Since then, roughly 45% of all people who have flown in space have suffered from this condition. The duration of space sickness varies, but rarely has it lasted for more than 72 hours, after which the body adjusts to the new environment.

And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place,-Acts 17:26

Earth remains the only known planet to host life, due to a unique combination of factors. However, continued monitoring of alien worlds might one day change that, by finding other planets that share these attributes or by discovering other ways that life has found to blossom in the universe.

On Earth, our bodies react automatically to gravity, maintaining both posture and locomotion in a downward pulling world. In microgravity environments, these constant signals are absent: the otolith organs in the middle ear are sensitive to linear acceleration and no longer perceive a downwards bias; muscles are no longer required to contract to maintain posture, and pressure receptors in the feet and ankles no longer signal the direction of "down". These changes can immediately result in visual-orientation illusions where the astronaut feels he has flipped 180 degrees. Over half of astronauts also experience symptoms of motion sickness for the first three days of travel due to the conflict between what the body expects and what the body actually perceives. Over time however the brain adapts and although these illusions can still occur, most astronauts begin to see "down" as where the feet are. People returning to Earth after extended weightless periods have to readjust to the force of gravity and may have problems standing up, focusing their gaze, walking and turning. This is just an initial problem, as they recover these abilities quickly.[vague]

NASA jokingly measures SAS using the "Garn scale", named for United States Senator Jake Garn, whose sickness during STS-51-D was the worst on record. Accordingly, one "Garn" is equivalent to the most severe possible case of space sickness.By studying how changes can affect balance in the human body—involving the senses, the brain, the inner ear, and blood pressure—NASA hopes to develop treatments that can be used on Earth and in space to correct balance disorders. Until then, astronauts rely on medication, such as midodrine and dimenhydrinate anti-nausea patches, as required (such as when space suits are worn, because vomiting into a space suit could be fatal).
Loss of bone and muscle mass
Main article: Spaceflight osteopenia
Aboard the International Space Station, astronaut Frank De Winne is attached to the T2 treadmill with bungee cords

A major effect of long-term weightlessness involves the loss of bone and muscle mass. Without the effects of gravity, skeletal muscle is no longer required to maintain posture and the muscle groups used in moving around in a weightless environment differ from those required in terrestrial locomotion.In a weightless environment, astronauts put almost no weight on the back muscles or leg muscles used for standing up. Those muscles then start to weaken and eventually get smaller. Consequently some muscles atrophy rapidly, and without regular exercise astronauts can lose up to 20% of their muscle mass in just 5 to 11 days The types of muscle fibre prominent in muscles also change. Slow twitch endurance fibres used to maintain posture are replaced by fast twitch rapidly contracting fibres that are insufficient for any heavy labour. Advances in research on exercise, hormone supplements and medication may help maintain muscle and body mass.

Bone metabolism also changes. Normally, bone is laid down in the direction of mechanical stress, however in a microgravity environment there is very little mechanical stress. This results in a loss of bone tissue approximately 1.5% per month especially from the lower vertebrae, hip and femur.Due to microgravity and the decreased load on the bones, there is a rapid increase in bone loss, from 3% cortical bone loss per decade to about 1% every month the body is exposed to microgravity, for an otherwise healthy adult.The rapid change in bone density is dramatic, making bones frail and resulting in symptoms which resemble those of osteoporosis. On Earth, the bones are constantly being shed and regenerated through a well-balanced system which involves signaling of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These systems are coupled, so that whenever bone is broken down, newly formed layers take its place – neither should happen without the other, in a healthy adult. In space, however, there is an increase in osteoclast activity due to microgravity. This is a problem, because osteoclasts break down the bones into minerals that are reabsorbed by the body.Osteoblasts are not consecutively active with the osteoclasts, causing the bone to be constantly diminished with no recovery. This increase in osteoclasts activity has been seen particularly in the pelvic region, because this is the region which carries the biggest load with gravity present. A study demonstrated that in healthy mice, osteoclasts appearance increased by 197%, accompanied by a down-regulation of osteoblasts and growth factors that are known to help with the formation of new bone, after only sixteen days of exposure to microgravity. Elevated blood calcium levels from the lost bone result in dangerous calcification of soft tissues and potential kidney stone formation It is still unknown whether bone recovers completely. Unlike people with osteoporosis, astronauts eventually regain their bone density.After a 3-4 month trip into space, it takes about 2–3 years to regain lost bone density.New techniques are being developed to help astronauts recover faster. Research on diet, exercise and medication may hold the potential to aid the process of growing new bone.

To prevent some of these adverse physiological effects, the ISS is equipped with two treadmills (including the COLBERT), and the aRED (advanced Resistive Exercise Device), which enable various weight-lifting exercises which add muscle but do nothing for bone density,and a stationary bicycle; each astronaut spends at least two hours per day exercising on the equipment.Astronauts use bungee cords to strap themselves to the treadmill.Astronauts subject to long periods of weightlessness wear pants with elastic bands attached between waistband and cuffs to compress the leg bones and reduce osteopenia.

Currently, NASA is using advanced computational tools to understand the how to best counteract the bone and muscle atrophy experienced by astronauts in microgravity environments for prolonged periods of time.The Human Research Program's Human Health Countermeasures Element chartered the Digital Astronaut Project to investigate targeted questions about exercise countermeasure regimes. NASA is focusing on integrating a model of the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on board the International Space Station with OpenSim musculoskeletal models of humans exercising with the device. The goal of this work is to use inverse dynamics to estimate joint torques and muscle forces resulting from using the ARED, and thus more accurately prescribe exercise regimens for the astronauts. These joint torques and muscle forces could be used in conjunction with more fundamental computational simulations of bone remodeling and muscle adaptation in order to more completely model the end effects of such countermeasures, and determine whether a proposed exercise regime would be sufficient to sustain astronaut musculoskeletal health.
Fluid redistribution
The effects of microgravity on fluid distribution around the body (greatly exaggerated).
Astronaut Clayton Andersonobserves as a water bubble floats in front of him on the Discovery. Watercohesion plays a bigger role in microgravity than on Earth

The second effect of weightlessness takes place in human fluids. The body is made up of 60% water, much of it intra-vascular and inter-cellular. Within a few moments of entering a microgravity environment, fluid is immediately re-distributed to the upper body resulting in bulging neck veins, puffy face and sinus and nasal congestion which can last throughout the duration of the trip and is very much like the symptoms of the common cold. In space the autonomic reactions of the body to maintain blood pressure are not required and fluid is distributed more widely around the whole body. This results in a decrease in plasma(water in the blood stream) volume of around 20%. These fluid shifts initiate a cascade of adaptive systemic effects that can be dangerous upon return to earth. Orthostatic intolerance results in astronauts returning to Earth after extended space missions being unable to stand unassisted for more than 10 minutes at a time without fainting. This is due in part to changes in the autonomic regulation of blood pressure and the loss of plasma volume. Although this effect becomes worse the longer the time spent in space, as yet all individuals have returned to normal within at most a few weeks of landing.

In space, astronauts lose fluid volume—including up to 22% of their blood volume. Because it has less blood to pump, the heart willatrophy. A weakened heart results in low blood pressure and can produce a problem with “orthostatic tolerance,” or the body’s ability to send enough oxygen to the brain without the astronaut's fainting or becoming dizzy. "Under the effects of the earth's gravity, blood and other body fluids are pulled towards the lower body. When gravity is taken away or reduced during space exploration, the blood tends to collect in the upper body instead, resulting in facial edema and other unwelcome side effects. Upon return to earth, the blood begins to pool in the lower extremities again, resulting in orthostatic hypotension."
Disruption of vision
Main article: Visual impairment due to intracranial pressure

Because weightlessness increases the amount of fluid in the upper part of the body, astronauts experience increased intracranial pressure. This appears to increase pressure on the backs of the eyeballs, affecting their shape and slightly crushing the optic nerve.This effect was noticed in 2012 in a study using MRI scans of astronauts who had returned to Earth following at least one month in space.Such eyesight problems may be a major concern for future deep space flight missions, including a manned mission to the planetMars.
Disruption of taste

One effect of weightlessness on humans is that some astronauts report a change in their sense of taste when in space. Some astronauts find that their food is bland, others find that their favorite foods no longer taste as good (one who enjoyed coffee disliked the taste so much on a mission that he stopped drinking it after returning to Earth); some astronauts enjoy eating certain foods that they would not normally eat, and some experience no change whatsoever. Multiple tests have not identified the cause,and several theories have been suggested, including food degradation, and psychological changes such as boredom. Astronauts often choose strong-tasting food to combat the loss of taste.
Other physical effects

After two months, calluses on the bottoms of feet molt and fall off from lack of use, leaving soft new skin. Tops of feet become, by contrast, raw and painfully sensitive. Tears cannot be shed while crying, as they stick together into a ball.In microgravity odors quickly permeate the environment, and NASA found in a test that the smell of cream sherrytriggered the gag reflex.Various other physical discomforts such as back and abdominal pain are common because of the readjustment to gravity, where in space there was no gravity and these muscles could freely stretch.These may be part of the asthenization syndrome reported by cosmonauts living in space over an extended period of time, but regarded as anecdotal by astronauts. Fatigue, listlessness, and psychosomatic worries are also part of the syndrome. The data is inconclusive; however the syndrome does appear to exist as a manifestation of all the internal and external stress crews in space must face.
Psychological effects of spaceflight
See also: Psychological and sociological effects of spaceflight
Studies of Russian cosmonauts, such as those on Mir, provide data on the long-term effects of space on the human body.

The psychological effects of living in space have not been clearly analyzed but analogies on Earth do exist, such as Arctic research stations and submarines. The enormous stress on the crew, coupled with the body adapting to other environmental changes, can result in anxiety, insomnia and depression. According to current data however, astronauts and cosmonauts seem extremely resilient to psychological stresses.

There has been considerable evidence that psychosocial stressors are among the most important impediments to optimal crew morale and performance.Cosmonaut Valery Ryumin, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, quotes this passage from The Handbook of Hymen by O. Henry in his autobiographical book about the Salyut 6 mission: “If you want to instigate the art of manslaughter just shut two men up in a eighteen by twenty-foot cabin for a month. Human nature won't stand it.”

NASA's interest in psychological stress caused by space travel, initially studied when their manned missions began, was rekindled when astronauts joined cosmonauts on the Russian space station Mir. Common sources of stress in early American missions included maintaining high performance while under public scrutiny, as well as isolation from peers and family. On the ISS, the latter is still often a cause of stress, such as when NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani's mother died in a car accident, and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.

The amount and quality of sleep experienced in space is poor due to highly variable light and dark cycles on flight decks and poor illumination during daytime hours in the space craft. Even the habit of looking out of the window before retiring can send the wrong messages to the brain, resulting in poor sleep patterns. These disturbances in circadian rhythm have profound effects on the neurobehavioural responses of crew and aggravate the psychological stresses they already experience (see Fatigue and sleep loss during spaceflight for more information). Sleep is disturbed on the ISS regularly due to mission demands, such as the scheduling of incoming or departing space vehicles. Sound levels in the station are unavoidably high because the atmosphere is unable to thermosyphon; fans are required at all times to allow processing of the atmosphere, which would stagnate in the freefall (zero-g) environment. Fifty percent of space shuttle astronauts take sleeping pills and still get 2 hours less sleep each night in space than they do on the ground.. NASA is researching two areas which may provide the keys to a better night’s sleep, as improved sleep decreases fatigue and increases daytime productivity. A variety of methods for combating this phenomenon are constantly under discussion.

A study of the longest spaceflight concluded that the first three weeks represent a critical period where attention is adversely affected because of the demand to adjust to the extreme change of environment. While Skylab's three crews remained in space 1, 2, and 3 months respectively, long-term crews on Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and the ISS remain about 5–6 months, while MIR expeditions often lasted longer. The ISS working environment includes further stress caused by living and working in cramped conditions with people from very different cultures who speak different languages. First generation space stations had crews who spoke a single language, while 2nd and 3rd generation stations have a crew from many cultures who speak many languages. The ISS is unique because visitors are not classed automatically into 'host' or 'guest' categories as with previous stations and spacecraft, and may not suffer from feelings of isolation in the same way. Crew members with a military pilot background and those with an academic science background or teachers and politicians may have problems understanding each other’s jargon and worldview.

Astronauts may not be able to quickly return to Earth or receive medical supplies, equipment or personnel if a medical emergency occurs. The astronauts may have to rely for long periods on their limited existing resources and medical advice from the ground.

On December 31, 2012, a NASA-supported study reported that manned spaceflight may harm the brain of astronauts and accelerate the onset of Alzheimer's disease.