Thursday, August 30, 2012


Matthew 9:12

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But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.

Colossians 4:14

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Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you.

Medicine is the applied science or practice of the diagnosistreatment, and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings.
Contemporary medicine applies health sciencebiomedical research, and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically throughmedication or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapyexternal splints & tractionprosthesesbiologicsionizing radiation and others.
The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing.

Friday, August 3, 2012


Job 38:37

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Who can number the clouds in wisdom.."


And he said also to the people, When ye see a cloud rise out of the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it is And when ye see the south wind blow, ye say, There will be heat; and it cometh to pass.Ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky and of the earth; but how is it that ye do not discern this time?

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.

Meteorological satellites see more than clouds and cloud systems. City lights, fires, effects of pollution, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, energy flows, etc., and other types of environmental information are collected using weather satellites. Weather satellite images helped in monitoring the volcanic ash cloud from Mount St. Helens and activity from other volcanoes such as Mount Etna. Smoke from fires in the western United States such as Colorado and Utah have also been monitored.

Other environmental satellites can detect changes in the Earth's vegetation, sea state, ocean color, and ice fields. For example, the 2002 oil spill off the northwest coast of Spain was watched carefully by the European ENVISAT, which, though not a weather satellite, flies an instrument (ASAR) which can see changes in the sea surface.

El Niño and its effects on weather are monitored daily from satellite images. The Antarctic ozone hole is mapped from weather satellite data. Collectively, weather satellites flown by the U.S., Europe, India, China, Russia, and Japan provide nearly continuous observations for a global weather watch.


Psalms 77:18

Viewing the 1769 King James Version. Click to switch to 1611 King James Version of Psalms 77:18.

The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven: the lightnings lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook.

The use of electricity gives a very convenient way to transfer energy, and because of this it has been adapted to a huge, and growing, number of uses. The invention of a practical incandescent light bulb in the 1870s led to lighting becoming one of the first publicly available applications of electrical power. Although electrification brought with it its own dangers, replacing the naked flames of gas lighting greatly reduced fire hazards within homes and factories. Public utilities were set up in many cities targeting the burgeoning market for electrical lighting.

The Joule heating effect employed in the light bulb also sees more direct use in electric heating. While this is versatile and controllable, it can be seen as wasteful, since most electrical generation has already required the production of heat at a power station.A number of countries, such as Denmark, have issued legislation restricting or banning the use of electric heating in new buildings. Electricity is however a highly practical energy source for refrigeration,with air conditioning representing a growing sector for electricity demand, the effects of which electricity utilities are increasingly obliged to accommodate.

Electricity is used within telecommunications, and indeed the electrical telegraph, demonstrated commercially in 1837 by Cooke and Wheatstone, was one of its earliest applications. With the construction of first intercontinental, and then transatlantic, telegraph systems in the 1860s, electricity had enabled communications in minutes across the globe. Optical fibre and satellite communication technology have taken a share of the market for communications systems, but electricity can be expected to remain an essential part of the process.

The effects of electromagnetism are most visibly employed in the electric motor, which provides a clean and efficient means of motive power. A stationary motor such as a winch is easily provided with a supply of power, but a motor that moves with its application, such as an electric vehicle, is obliged to either carry along a power source such as a battery, or to collect current from a sliding contact such as a pantograph, placing restrictions on its range or performance.

Electronic devices make use of the transistor, perhaps one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century, and a fundamental building block of all modern circuitry. A modern integrated circuit may contain several billion miniaturised transistors in a region only a few centimetres square.

Two 1 New York City Subway Trains, running electrically.
Electricity is also used to fuel public transportation, including electric busses and trains.



"Science when well digested is nothing but good sense and reason"
 The reason behinde Why there is abundance of Fossel Fuels and Arab County is If We back in the beggining the exact direction of Garden of Eden was a land called Middle east .(Gen.2:8-15)
When God destroy the Garden What happen?

Ezekiel 31:15-18

15 Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day when he went down to the grave I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed: and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

16 I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth.

17 They also went down into hell with him unto them that be slain with the sword; and they that were his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the heathen.

18 To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth: thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD.


By now we have set the scene for a more detailed look at the origin of fossil fuels. Of course, the main fossil fuels are coal, mineral oil, and natural gas, with a few less important sources such as lignite, bitumen, and tar sands.

The outstanding feature of all fossil fuels is that they contain a lot of carbon. Coal is especially rich, with up to 95%. The others are mainly hydrocarbons, compounds of carbon with hydrogen, sometimes with other elements present, but even in these the proportion of carbon is high, around 82-87% by weight.

About Coal

Coal was one of the earliest minerals to be be developed in today's technological society, in fact it was one of the main props for the Industrial Revolution, which started in Britain. Britain has considerable coal deposits and a long history of geological discovery, so the nature of coal deposits in that country have become known in great detail.
Figure 13.1 (taken from the 1875 Encyclopaedia Britannica) shows the various geological strata found in conjunction with the Coal Measures of different parts of Britain. The actual coal seams vary in thickness from a mere film to as much as 15 metres. In other parts of the world even thicker seams have been found, as in the south of France and in India, up to 60m thick or more.

Fig. 13.1 Carboniferous strata in Britain

Of course even the rich coal deposits form only a small fraction of the total rock strata, which in the Carboniferous of Britain can be more than 4km thick. The majority of the rock is made up of typical sedimentary strata, in particular sandstones, limestones, and shales.
Although the majority of important coal deposits of the world are of Carboniferous age, some are found in the Permian period which follows, and also in the younger rocks of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The younger deposits are usually much less compacted ('brown coal'), have more moisture, and have clearly undergone less conversion from the original plant remains.
Older, more compact coals have little moisture and are richest in carbon, having as much as 95%, the rest being hydrogen, water, and ash. In good coals of any age the ash content is quite low, below 2%. This is similar to the ash content of the above-ground portions of modern plants.
How did coal originate? The answer to this is to be found in any geology textbook, which describes the vast swamps of the Carboniferous Period, with their giant primitive trees and strange animals. That some such plant provenances existed is undoubted - there are too many well-preserved fossil plants involved in the Coal Measure deposits of the Earth to be able to reject the notion. But the standard swamp picture has a number of serious deficiencies.

Puzzles of Coal Formation

All the sedimentary strata enclosing coal are typical of offshore deposits, deposits laid down in the seas. Limestones are almost invariably of marine origin, sandstones are normally produced on the sea floor from particles washed in by rivers or off the coasts. Shales may be formed from the mud of lakes, but are more typical of offshore seabed areas, beyond the point where the coarser sand particles have already settled.
Why should coal seams be enclosed in these typically marine deposits? Why is coal relatively pure carbon, without much trace of any soil remains? Why are 'marine bands', deposits obviously derived from the sea [Rhodes, 1960], often found within the coal seams? Why are fossil mussel shells often associated with coal? Why are deposits of coal sometimes associated with salt beds?

These questions are even more perplexing when you take into account the relatively small amount of land surface which existed during the Carboniferous, if the approach used in this book is to be believed. Modern high-carbon deposits are being formed on land today, within our swamps and marshes (initially as peat), but their thickness is not great, especially after conversion and compression to a composition and density similar to that of coal.
An answer to some of these difficulties may be found in the following suggestion. Could it have been the case that these vast Coal Measure swamps existed, not on land, but on the surface of the sea? Was coal, and probably much of our oil and gas deposits, formed from material sinking to the floor of shallow seas, at a time when all seas were relatively shallow (because expansion had not then proceeded to the stage where ocean deeps existed)?

Proposition 13A
Most coal deposits were produced by the conversion of plants which had grown up floating on the surface of the sea

"Impossible!" would be the first response. How could the tall Coal Measure plants, clearly adjusted to fresh water, exist on the sea?

The Quaking Forests

A fascinating and unusual landscape feature can sometimes be encountered which is known as a Quaking Forest. You walk through the pine forests, and suddenly you notice that the trees are swaying, although there is no wind. They only sway where you are walking. The march of the Ents, perhaps, from Tolkien?
The explanation for a Quaking Forest is simple. It is a forest which has grown on top of a lake, on a layer of floating plant debris which has gradually accumulated and grown out from the original lake edge. This phenomenon is well known and accepted with some mangrove swamps, growing out from river banks, sometimes completely choking a river. But with a Quaking Forest, there is actually a pocket or lens of water left between the underside of the mass of plant roots and the solid mud which formed the bed of the lake.
It is like a layer of moss growing on the top of a waterbed ¬‚ push your finger down into the top and the closer stems bend towards you. As you release your finger, or as waves travel out from where you pushed down, the stems bend and sway, back and forth.
It might be argued that the huge Carboniferous plants were too big to float on the surface of the sea, they would fall over. But, of course, the pines do it now in a Quaking Forest. And, in the densest, tallest, and most prolific rainforests of today, the root systems of the huge trees are surprisingly shallow. They resist falling over partly by developing buttresses, but more importantly through the shelter of their environment protecting them from winds. We have already seen, in Chapter 11, how the Carboniferous conditions were probably of dense, still air under an impenetrable cloud cover which would suppress air movements.

Proverbs 26:20

Where no wood is, there the fire goeth out:

The Floating Swamps

The picture we are building up is perhaps not too different to the accepted swamp scenario, but with one vital difference - the swamps were not on land, but on the sea. This would explain much. It would explain why the coal seams are interleaved with marine sedimentary rocks, marine shell bands, and occasionally salt beds. It would explain the comparatively wide extent of coal deposits in the land-poor Carboniferous world. It would explain the low ash content of coals, if the plants they were derived from grew in the absence of soils.
How about the saltiness of the sea? We have already seen (Propositions 10I, 10J) that the salinity is likely to have increased continously up to the present time, so the seas would have been less salty during the Carboniferous than they are now. Moreover, it would be possible for a thick continuous mass of floating organic material to be saturated with fresh water, even though it was floating on salty water.
Fresh water is less dense than salt water, and under calm conditions it could easily happen that the floating plant layer, soaked in the rain which we have seen was probably falling continually, was stabilized enough so its fresh water did not mix with underlying more salty layers on which it floated. After all, that is not so very different from present conditions where a plant is growing in a soil, wet with fresh water, which overlies a deeper water table where the water is known to be salty.
If the scenario I have painted for the early days of life on Earth is correct, we are looking then at a much smaller Earth, with less land than now, but also much less extensive seas. Instead of the rolling oceans of today, the seas would mostly be relatively shallow interdomain gulfs, perhaps none more than 100km across, and there would be no deep oceans.
Of course there could still be the conventional shore-line swamps, but these would be only a minor component, blending in continuously with the on-sea swamps. The latter would build up a thicker and thicker layer of plant material, the bottom part of which would break off periodically and sink down to the bottom of the sea. Or possibly whole floating islands could break off, like icebergs calving from a glacier, and later sink further out to sea. In these ways, in quiet times, very thick seams of what was to become coal could be accumulated.
When times were not so quiet, and domains were in active movement, the floating swamps might be washed or blown away. Newly-upraised land would erode and provide abundant sedimentary material to cover the coal. As the interdomain gulfs widened with Earth expansion, these sedimentary layers would be covered with the fine muds of more offshore areas, and perhaps the limestones of the still, warm seas.

Proposition 13B
Coal deposits were laid down in the narrow and shallow interdomain gulfs produced by early Earth expansion

The Petroleum Story

While coal was the energy mainstay in the early development of modern industry, petroleum is a latecomer in this respect, a child of the 20th Century. During this century it has moved from an energy source of little consequence to be the principal source of our needs. In the present context, petroleum can be taken to include both oil-type sources which are liquid under normal temperatures and pressures, and natural gas.
Both types frequently occur together, often with the gas dissolved in the oil, often under very high pressure - helping to make a self-pumping 'gusher'. Natural gas as a developed energy source is even newer than oil, dating back only to the 1950's. Before this, the gas was usually regarded as an annoying byproduct which was burnt off or otherwise went to waste.
Of course there are instances of practical use of petroleum, dating far back into the past. Natural seepages of oil (asphalt and bitumen) were used in the Middle East by the Sumerians, Assyrians, and Babylonians some 5000 years ago, in building mortar, road construction, and ship caulking.
Petroleum is very commonly associated with salt, and as the use of deep drilled wells was once primarily for the extraction of brine (concentrated natural salt solutions), it has often figured as an unwanted discovery. This was the case with the early Chinese, who around 200BC drilled a 140m deep well to extract brine and were annoyed to get gas as well. Subsequently they worked out how to burn the gas and use it to evaporate the brine in making salt crystals.
Even the early work in the United States, where large-scale petroleum extraction was pioneered, had a similar history. In 1819 a well being bored for brine in Kentucky yielded so much black petroleum that it was abandoned in disgust. In 1829 another Kentucky brine well yielded a huge flow of several thousand tonnes of oil, most of which was wasted, although a little was bottled and sold for liniment (as 'American oil'). It was not until 1859 that a well was bored specifically to extract petroleum, in Pennsylvania.

Formation of Petroleum

There are obvious similarities and links between petroleum and coal, and a number of obvious differences. Chemically, petroleum sources are principally hydrocarbons, compounds of carbon and hydrogen, whereas in coals much of the corresponding hydrogen has been eliminated. Both fossil fuel sources are essentially complex mixtures, with no two deposits chemically identical. Coal often has a much higher sulphur content than petroleum, and for this reason has lost favour for domestic use with increasing concern over air pollution.
Physically, petroleum sources are fluids whereas coal is a solid, and this has important consequences. As a fluid, petroleum can migrate, and the rocks from which it is extracted are usually not the same as the ones in which it was formed. It also means that to be available for large-scale extraction, the petroleum must be 'trapped' in the rocks in some way, as with impermeable layers of clay, shale, or salt around it.
The reservoir rocks which hold the petroleum are mostly sandstones (59%) and limestones, including dolomites (40%), the same typical sedimentary rocks which were associated with coal. Less than 1% of the world's oil has been found in fractured igneous or metamorphic rocks, which typically lack the pore or void space needed to be successful reservoir rocks.
There seems no doubt that, whatever their mode of formation, both coal and petroleum are essentially derived from the remains of living creatures. In Proposition 13A, I made the possibly novel suggestion that coal was formed from the remains of plants growing floating on the seas. It seems very likely that petroleum had a similar origin.

Proposition 13C
Oil and gas deposits were formed from the remains of plants which had grown floating on the surface of the sea

Amusingly enough, while the coal proposition in 13A may lead to outraged protests, the almost identical one for oil will not - it is close to the currently accepted view. This is that the major source of petroleum was floating plankton, minute marine plant and animal organisms, which grew in shallow seas.
Fuller details of the reasons for concluding that petroleum has an organic origin, and that its major source was marine plankton, are given in the Encyclopaedia Britannica article on Petroleum [Britannica/ 14 :164-175]. The paragraph on the origin of petroleum concludes "In spite of the great amount of scientific research ... there remain many unresolved questions regarding its origin".

It does seem possible that, even though Proposition 13C can be regarded as the accepted view, the floating plankton source idea may need modification in two ways. The first is to suggest that what are regarded as 'land' plants formed an important, or even the principal, source of the petroleum material. In other words, these plants grew on floating mats on the sea, just as suggested for the coal deposits. And the remains of plants which are accepted as being of 'land' types are not uncommon in some petroleum deposits.
The second point has more implications; this is the suggestion that the floating mats of material were essentially continuous, forming closed capping layers over the surface of the sea. While these layers may not have been as thick and 'trafficable' as the coal ones, able to support quite tall trees, they still may have been able to effectively seal off the underlying sea from the atmosphere and from normal evaporative processes.

Proposition 13D
The floating layers of plants which provided the source material for petroleum and coal were able to seal off significant areas of the seas and prevent normal evaporation

If this Proposition is found to be valid, it has considerable implications for the formation of both fossil fuels and for salt. It is not disputed that the formation of fossil fuels from organic materials needs anaerobic conditions, those where oxygen is lacking. This is because the actual conversion is done by anaerobic bacteria which can only function where there is no oxygen - these are the organisms responsible for production of marsh gas (methane) from bogs, which lack oxygen under their surfaces.
Clearly sealing off the surface of a shallow sea with organic material would allow its water to become completely anaerobic and enable the conversion of plant remains under the surface to coal and petroleum.

Proposition 13E
Seas sealed from the atmosphere with a floating organic layer would become anaerobic and foster the conversion of organic material to fossil fuels

It has always been assumed that rock salt deposits, which are sometimes of great thickness, were formed by conventional evaporation of water from the surface of enclosed lakes or seas. This may well be the case, but it is also possible that they were formed from sealed seas.
If domain movement caused the uplift of a sealed-sea area, or some other change occurred to reduce the rain falling on such an area, it would be expected that the water in the sea would be gradually diminished and would disappear. Even if the floating plant layer was completely dead, water would continuously rise through the sponge-like layer and be evaporated, leaving the salt behind. Once a certain salt concentration was reached, the special properties of such salt solutions for holding thermal inversion layers could accelerate this process, leading to the formation of thick salt layers beneath the organic seal.

Thursday, August 2, 2012


Ramses II: Ramses The Great


Numbers 33:3-5

A land called "Rameses" name to the Pharoh of Egypt "Ramses or Rameses II"

Ramses II was one of the greatest Ancient Egyptian pharaohs who reigned in the 19th Dynasty. This pharaoh is sometimes referred to as “Ramses the Great” due to his great accomplishments and to his long reign over Egypt; his reign lasted over 90 years. He was born a son of a pharaoh; thereby, receiving the throne after his father’s death. Ramses II went on accomplish much more than his father or other pharaohs had done before or after him.

Exodus 1:11

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Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and "Raamses".

Ramses II is known not only as “Ramses the Great,” but also as a great warrior, builder, family and religious man. In all these categories he seemed to excel. We know this due to the many temples that are still standing today. The hieroglyphics of Ancient Egypt capture and list the various accomplishments during his lifetime and gives us a snapshot of his life journey and undertakings throughout his life. Due to the hard work and diligence of many Archeologists and Egyptologists over time, we have come to discover even more about this great king. Just recently, the discovery of his mummy has given us more information on the physical being that ruled from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. It has helped to further close the gap on how he may have lived and looked.

We know of the volatile political climate that existed during his reign due to the many writings that have survived the test of time. These writings have given us insight into the man as a political being and how he controlled his kingdom and how he managed to outsmart many of his enemies. It is these writings that have also given us insight into the many great monuments that he left behind and were constructed under his reign. The standing monuments that he left behind attest to the greatness of the man and his ability to carry forth such feats during a time of political unrest and attacks and yet managed to hold his power over such a great territory.

In addition to the many political and asset building attributes his empire acquired during his reign, he fathered over 100 children and had many wives; his chief wife was Nefertari. Today, we know that he outlived at least 12 of his sons and most probably countless wives and grandchildren during his lifetime.
Read further to learn more details about this great pharaoh and how he came to be known as one of the great pharaohs of the Ancient Egyptian world.


Genesis 10:25

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And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan.

Plate Tectonics - Pangaea Continent Maps

Plate tectonics is the study of the lithosphere, the outer portion of the earth consisting of the crust and part of the upper mantle. The lithosphere is divided into about a dozen large plates which move and interact with one another to create earthquakes, mountain ranges, volcanic activity, ocean trenches and many other features. Continents and ocean basis are moved and changed in shape as a result of these plate movements.

pangea map
Illustration from USGS

Pangaea, Pangæa, or Pangea (play /pænˈə/ pan-JEE;) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming about 300 million years ago and beginning to rift around 200 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configurations. The single global ocean which surrounded Pangaea is accordingly named Panthalassa.

The name Pangaea is derived from Ancient Greek, pan (πᾶν) meaning "entire," and Gaia (Γαῖα) meaning "Earth." The name was coined during a 1927 symposium discussing Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. In his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), first published in 1915, he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent", before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations.
The sequence of maps below show how a large supercontinent, known as Pangaea was fragmented into several pieces, each being part of a mobile plate of the lithosphere. These pieces were to become Earth's current continents. The time sequence show through the maps traces the paths of the continents to their current positions.. In the early 1900's Alfred Wegener proposed the idea of Continental Drift. His ideas centered around continents moving across the face of the earth. The idea was not quite correct - compared to the plate tectonics theory of today - but his thinking was on the proper track. In addition, a variant spelling of Pangaea is "Pangea". It appears in some textbooks and glossaries, however, Pangaea is the current preferred spelling.