Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Habitable Atmosphere of Young Earth

Habitable Atmosphere of Young Earth Prove the Accuracy of Biblical Account:

And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the third day.And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:(Genesis 1:10-14)

A view from above the clouds of Earth. Image Credit: NASA

Scientists in the New York Center for Astrobiology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have used the oldest minerals on Earth to reconstruct the atmospheric conditions present on Earth very soon after its birth. The findings, which appear in the Dec. 1 edition of the journalNature, are the first direct evidence of what the ancient atmosphere of the planet was like soon after its formation and directly challenge years of research on the type of atmosphere out of which life arose on the planet.

The scientists show that the atmosphere of Earth just 500 million years after its creation was not a methane-filled wasteland as previously proposed, but instead was much closer to the conditions of our current atmosphere. The findings, in a paper titled “The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth’s atmosphere,” have implications for our understanding of how and when life began on this planet and could begin elsewhere in the universe. The research was funded by NASA.

For decades, scientists believed that the atmosphere of early Earth was highly reduced, meaning that oxygen was greatly limited. Such oxygen-poor conditions would have resulted in an atmosphere filled with noxious methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia. To date, there remain widely held theories and studies of how life on Earth may have been built out of this deadly atmosphere cocktail.

Now, scientists at Rensselaer are turning these atmospheric assumptions on their heads with findings that prove the conditions on early Earth were simply not conducive to the formation of this type of atmosphere, but rather to an atmosphere dominated by the more oxygen-rich compounds found within our current atmosphere — including water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

“We can now say with some certainty that many scientists studying the origins of life on Earth simply picked the wrong atmosphere,” said Bruce Watson, Institute Professor of Science at Rensselaer.

Magma flowing from deep in the Earth contains dissolved gases.

The findings rest on the widely held theory that Earth’s atmosphere was formed by gases released from volcanic activity on its surface. Today, as during the earliest days of the Earth, magma flowing from deep in the Earth contains dissolved gases. When that magma nears the surface, those gases are released into the surrounding air.

“Most scientists would argue that this outgassing from magma was the main input to the atmosphere,” Watson said. “To understand the nature of the atmosphere ‘in the beginning,’ we needed to determine what gas species were in the magmas supplying the atmosphere.”

As magma approaches the Earth’s surface, it either erupts or stalls in the crust, where it interacts with surrounding rocks, cools, and crystallizes into solid rock. These frozen magmas and the elements they contain can be literal milestones in the history of Earth.



The ocean is not just where the land happens to be covered by water. The sea floor is geologically distinct from the continents. It is locked in a perpetual cycle of birth and destruction that shapes the ocean and controls much of the geology and geological history of the continents.

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.(Genesis 1:1-2)

Although the Australian landmass and other continent   of today is much different from the original one that emerged from the sea, parts of it have remained unchanged, or mostly so, from that first dry land, possibly the first dry land in the world. Parts of Australia emerged from the sea at least 3000 million years ago. In the southern part of Western Australia is an ancient block of rock called Yilgarnia by geologists. This block has not been covered by the sea since it first rose from the water. The granite rock of Yilgarnia crystallised at least 2,700 million years ago.


And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.(Genesis 1:9-10)


And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: (2 Pet.3:4-5)

Tuesday, May 27, 2014


"To the Lord the nations are nothing,
no more than a drop of water;
the distant islands are as light as dust...."Do you not know?
Were you not told long ago?
Have you not heard how the world began?[Isaiah 40:15,21]

We are all made of stardust. It sounds like a line from a poem, but there is some solid science behind this statement too: almost every element on Earth was formed at the heart of a star.

Next time you’re out gazing at stars twinkling in the night sky, spare a thought for the tumultuous reactions they play host to. It’s easy to forget that stars owe their light to the energy released by nuclear fusion reactions at their cores. These are the very same reactions which created chemical elements like carbon or iron - the building blocks which make up the world around us.

After the Big Bang, tiny particles bound together to form hydrogen and helium. As time went on, young stars formed when clouds of gas and dust gathered under the effect of gravity, heating up as they became denser. At the stars’ cores, bathed in temperatures of over 10 million degrees C, hydrogen and then helium nuclei fused to form heavier elements. A reaction known as nucleosynthesis.

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.(Genesis 1:1-2)


This reaction continues in stars today as lighter elements are converted into heavier ones. Relatively young stars like our Sun convert hydrogen to produce helium, just like the first stars of our universe. Once they run out of hydrogen, they begin to transform helium into beryllium and carbon. As these heavier nuclei are produced, they too are burnt inside stars to synthesise heavier and heavier elements. Different sized stars play host to different fusion reactions, eventually forming everything from oxygen to iron.

During a supernova, when a massive star explodes at the end of its life, the resulting high energy environment enables the creation of some of the heaviest elements including iron and nickel. The explosion also disperses the different elements across the universe, scattering the stardust which now makes up planets including Earth.

Monday, May 26, 2014

The Mystery of Pregnancy Cravings

And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chestnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink. And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted.And Jacob did separate the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban's cattle.And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacoblaid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods.(Genesis 30:37-41)

Have you ever heard stories of pregnant women craving pickles and ice cream? Or seen the media portraying pregnant women demanding that their partners get Ben and Jerry’s ice cream at 3am? Such anecdotes become more outlandish - pregnant women fighting in Trader Joe’s over the last box of multi-grain waffles, losing control at the smell of chocolate, and driving through hailstorms to get curly fries. As we cross cultural boundaries, the specifics of the stories change, but cultures almost universally offer some sort of explanation as to why cravings exist and legitimize the occasional bizarre craving behavior.

When Queen Jane Seymour became pregnant in 1537, King Henry VIII did not have a male heir to the throne since his two previous wives had been unable to bear children. With a vested interest in the stability of Jane’s pregnancy, Henry went to great lengths to import live quail from France in order to satisfy the Queen’s cravings, since tradition stipulated that satisfied cravings made for safer pregnancies. This grand gesture seemed to pay off, as future heir Edward VI was born later that year. However, in a strange twist of fate, Jane died twelve days later. Rumor had it that her extravagant cravings had caused her death.

Why should science concern itself with in pregnancy cravings? From the perspective of advancing knowledge, we simply do not know what causes pregnancy cravings. Societies have furnished causal explanations that made sense within their cultural context for millennia. However, science has had difficulty evaluating these claims since a craving cannot be easily quantified or measured. From a more practical standpoint, being able to study cravings scientifically would allow us to better understand the state of the body during pregnancy and offer nutritional guidelines that may improve maternal diets.

Most women experience food cravings at some point during pregnancy. While these cravings might be for a specific type of cuisine or unusual food, they typically include the desire for sweet, salty, spicy or fatty foods. Sometimes, even nonfood products serve as cravings. While these cravings are most likely the result of hormonal and metabolic changes that take place in a woman’s body, some propose that the baby’s sex can be revealed based on the nature of these cravings.

Woman ususally have cravings when they are pregnant. 

Cravings are a well-known and expected symptom of pregnancy. Several theories exist for such food related urges. Hormonal changes are known to alter taste and smell, which might explain the desire for specific, sometimes unusual foods. A temporary nutritional deficiency because of the high nutrient needs of the baby is also a possibility. A lack or shortage of specific nutrients might lead to the heightened need to consume these nutrient-rich foods. Food intake is also known to be connected to women’s emotions. During pregnancy, women might crave specific foods, consciously or unconsciously, as a response to emotional needs. Another explanation is that cravings serve as an early means of deciphering the baby’s sex as certain foods correlate to the sex of the baby.

Medical Interpretations: Hormones and Orexigenic Agents

With advances in the sciences, we can begin to bridge the gap between culture and scientific theory using the physiology behind pregnancy cravings. During pregnancy, women are resistant to leptin, an endocrine growth factor. Leptin reduces appetite and stimulates metabolism by interacting with receptors at the “appetite center” of the hypothalamus. Without leptin, multiple orexigenic pathways, or pathways that stimulate hunger, are left unopposed. This causes neuropeptide Y, one of the most potent orexigenic agents known, to have significantly decreased immunoreactivity during pregnancy, and this is thought to contribute to increased food intake.

“Neuropeptide Y increases hunger.

Studies have also been performed to understand women’s changing sense perception during pregnancy. Some of the first signs of pregnancy include “increased sensitivity to odors” and “a metallic taste in your mouth.”Abnormal smell and/or taste perception is reported in roughly 75% of women.It has been hypothesized that these altered gustatory and olfactory thresholds are caused by a change of neuronal activity within the female brain. Because of uterine expansion during pregnancy, adjacent uterine and gustatory neurons may be interacting with one another.In any case, cravings appear to be affected by smell and taste sensitivity, and thus have a direct biological basis.

Challenges for Research

While science has shown that the physiological changes accompanying pregnancy cravings have a neuronal and hormonal basis, it has yet to offer a strong theory as to how these cravings have come about. Is the Western notion of causality due to “wisdom of the body” valid? In order to determine if Queen Seymour’s cravings were a result of a nutritional deficiency, it would by hypothetically necessary to establish that (a) she had such a deficiency (b) quail had a nutrient that satisfied it and (c) the deficiency preceded her consumption of quail, so as to exclude reverse causation. Since this question involves a human subject whose cravings cannot be manipulated in a laboratory setting, population-based nutritional epidemiology may hold the answer.

“Nutritional epidemiology may hold the answer to our craving questions.

I am applying the conceptual methodology outlined above to my current thesis project. In order to measure a nutritional deficiency (part a), I could theoretically use biochemical blood or tissue indicators to measure the amounts of various nutrients in the blood. However, analyzing these biochemical indicators on a large scale would require expensive blood analyses, and some nutrients such as total fat have no indicators. Thus, nutritional epidemiologists utilize noninvasive instruments like food records and dietary journals to calculate the consumption of nutrients based on what food was eaten. In order to find out if the food craved contains the nutrient (part b), its nutrient profile would be determined from nutritional databases. Finally, the deficiency must precede the craving in order to determine a causal relationship (part c).

While we do not yet know the mechanisms that led to Queen Jane’s cravings, comparative cross-cultural studies have shed insight on the myriad of causal interpretations offered. Advances in nutritional epidemiology also hold promise for assessing the validity of the “wisdom of the body” hypothesis, which would lead to better nutritional guidelines regarding maternal diets. Until then, it’s probably best to satisfy that craving for quail!

How to Talk to Your DNA

For the body is not one member, but many.If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him.And if they were all one member, where were the body? But now are they many members, yet but one body.And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you.Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary:And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked: That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for anotherAnd whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it. (1Corinthians12:14-26)

Our DNA holds the secrets of immortality and wellness. Within it lies the wisdom of not only our genetic ancestors but our past and future life experiences as well. We have been told that we will be activating ten strands of dormant ‘junk’ DNA that are overlaid in the two active strands of DNA that we currently operate with. How can we activate this extra DNA in order to access the wisdom needed to move forward? 

What is DNA?

DNA lies in the nucleus of each cell in our body except for red blood cells. The blood in the body carries DNA but only in the white blood cells of the blood since red blood cells do not have nuclei. The instructions for the blueprint of our human body is replicated in full in each nucleus. In essence our body is one large hologram with each cell containing a complete pattern of DNA and all cells make up the whole of our physical existence.

Besides serving as a template, DNA serves as a place to store records of experience and wisdom and also allows for communication to deeper aspects of ourselves. Scientists today are aware that we have two active intertwining strands of DNA that carry the codes for our characteristics and interaction as human beings. Within these two strands lies the genetic imprint of our other, father, grandparents, and so on for our physical embodiment.

The other strands of DNA have been labeled inactive by science. Beyond science, this mysterious DNA is the magical doorway to a new kingdom. The exciting news is that the other strands are slowly awakening and merging with our two strand DNA in expansion as we raise our vibrationin concert with the planet.

What affects our DNA?

The diminishing magnetic field and the increasing Solar Flare activity is part of what will cause our other strands of DNA to be “activated” or to merge into our existence as our vibration continues to rise. This would allow a shift in consciousness as the higher wisdom of our DNA is accessible within the physical body.

Why would I want to talk to my DNA?

Every cell in our DNA has consciousness that is linked to the higher self. The higher self is the conscious mind of our soul, which is the larger essence of who we are as a spiritual being. We are a finger of consciousness from our soul sent down onto the lower dimensions, as our soul is so big that it cannot fit into the compact denseness of the third dimension. As our Universe, galaxy, and planet expands, it allows the space for us to expand as well. This will allow for more access to our soul particles and we are choosing to bring them into this reality of living in a human body. In order to do this we must change from a carbon blueprint to one of a lighter density.

By communicating to our DNA, we can accomplish many things including:

1. Healing- By sending love and light consciously into our cells, we have the power to heal the body.
2. Nutrition- By asking your body what it would like to eat, it can tell you the optimal food it requires based on its genetic code.
3. Wisdom- The process of remembrance involves gaining access to Akashic records through our DNA.
4. Ascension- When we expand each cell in our body with light, we become crystalline based beings vibrating at a higher frequency of love where we cannot be interfered with by lower vibrational beings. Manifestation of this into our reality can be achieved by verbally intending what we wish to manifest in our reality.

Because our bodies are holograms, we only need to speak to one of the cells in our body in order to communicate to all of the cells. They are interconnected and function as a whole being. They are the blueprint for what humanity is striving to be as a macrocosm. However, it is acceptable to talk to cells of a particular organ such as the kidney or liver if you want to specifically send healing to those cells. They will in kind send healing to all of the other cells in the body.

How to talk to your DNA

Communication with your DNA is not a difficult process and can be as personal and unique as you would like for it to be. You can try different methods and choose what feels best to your body.

In order to have the highest intentions it would be a good idea to set up a miniature ritual before you begin to communicate with your body the first time. If you are going to be indoors, this would include setting the energy in the room and making yourself comfortable. If you would prefer to be outside, nature can provide the life force needed to serve as a bridge to you and your higher self through your cells. Once you make initial contact with a cell or cells in your body, you can simply pick up this conversation anytime you wish, anywhere you are.

Talking to your cells is a mixture between meditation and prayer.

The following is an example of how you can talk to your DNA

1. Find a comfortable position that works for you. You can sit in a lotus position, lie down, sit in a comfortable chair, sit on the couch, or even sit in a warm bath.
2. Close your eyes and relax.
3. Take a few slow, deep breaths from your diaphragm area. Bring your attention and awareness into your heart chakra. Take another deep breath as you focus on sitting within the energy of your heart center. Imagination goes a long way when intending within mediation. What you are doing in your heart center is sitting with yourself in the highest vibration of your body which is love.
4. Next think of a section of your body. Choose the first section that comes to your mind. Do not second guess your first intuitive response.
5. Within that section of your body, narrow your focus now to a smaller section of your body, then go further and further within your body, deeper, and deeper, until you lock focus on one cell of your body.
6. Speak softly to your cell and let it know how happy you are to make contact with it. Let it know your intentions. This could be healing, having a conversation with it, or intending that your cell be filled with light in the process of ascension. Whatever your reason for contact is, your cell will be ecstatic that you have finally realized that you could communicate with it. As you practice sitting in communion with your own cells, you can pause and listen for an answer. It is important to pay attention to the first thing that comes into your mind. Many times we tend to think we are just communicating with our own imagination, however we are indeed in contact with a portion of ourselves.

Meditative communication is a great way to get to know your body’s needs. Since all cells are in communication with each other, you can ask this one cell if there is another cell that needs attention. Do not worry of you cannot receive any answers from your cells “verbally” or mentally in your head. Many people are able to feel the way our cells communicate with us. Some people have chills up and down the body in response to truth. You could ask yes or no questions to your cell and wait for an answer, where yes could be established as chills, and no would be absence of chills.

The end result of talking with your cells

As we talk to our cells we bring love into them. Love is light and as we bring light in we raise our vibration. As we expand our cells to receive more light, we create an environment for more of our soul light to join us within our body. Eventually we will all be able to communicate freely with our higher selves which are tied to our souls. Our souls are tied to our monads, which are simply a finger of consciousness of our creator.

This gives a new definition of what it means to “go within” in order to have all of the answers we could want. Our cells are all connected to each other and further they are connected to all of the wisdom we could need, from our higher self to our soul which has access to all of the experiences of everything that ever was recorded in the Akashic Records. Your soul may or may not have access to certain things now, but eventually as we learn how to maneuver our consciousness up the ladder of connection to Creator, this wisdom is indeed ours just as it is our Creator’s.

Monday, May 19, 2014

Gas in the Abdomen

Gas in the Abdomen?
"Should a wise man utter vain knowledge, and fill his belly with the east wind?(Job 15:2)

Gas is frequently seen throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In most cases, it is of no clinical significance. The majority of this gas originates as swallowed air. Other sources include carbonated beverages and gas-forming bacteria within the colon.

Gas commonly is seen in the stomach on an upright lumbar film. This gas is located in the fundus of the stomach and often will be part of an air-fluid interface. Occasionally, the rugal folds of the stomach are visible. These are oriented to the long axis of the stomach and have a wavy appearance. (See Figure 1.) The composition of gas in the stomach is very similar to that of the air we breathe. The gastric fundus is fixed in location and typically measures within 2.5 cm of the left hemidiaphragm.

Gas in the small bowel is less common, and typically is in less quantity, than the stomach and large bowel. This is because it is more rapidly absorbed through the wall. This also results in changes to the composition of the gas. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are rapidly absorbed; however, nitrogen is not, so it makes up the majority of gas in this location. Sometimes, you can see larger quantities of gas in the small bowel that does not necessarily indicate an abnormality. This may be seen in individuals who swallow large quantities of air in stressful situations. An example of this would be a pediatric patient who has been crying. It also can occur after drinking large quantities of carbonated beverages. Gas in the small bowel can be identified due to the internal folds. These are known as the valvulae conniventes. The folds completely enclose the internal diameter of the bowel wall and are more prominent in the proximal portion of the small intestine. Small-bowel gas will be more commonly seen through the central regions of the abdomen. However, since most of the small bowel is not fixed in place, it can have a widely variable location.

The large bowel typically contains more gas than the small bowel. This is due to decreased absorption in addition to the actual production of gas by bacteria. The composition of the gas changes due to this bacterial production. It frequently will have hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane added to the nitrogen. The large bowel is identified by the gas-filled haustral outpouchings. Each haustral outpouching is bordered by a plica semilunaris, a fold of colonic wall that projects into the lumen. The plica semilunaris extend only partially around the circumference of the bowel, as opposed to the valvulae conniventes of the small bowel. Gas in the large bowel frequently is accompanied by fecal material. Small gas pockets frequently are trapped within the fecal material, giving it a characteristic mottled appearance. Large-bowel gas is more likely to be located around the periphery of the abdomen. But like the small bowel, it can have a wide variation in its location. The only fixed regions are the hepatic and splenic flexures.

Abnormal Gas in the Abdomen

Stomach gas may alert us to a problem when it is in a different position than expected, below the left hemidiaphragm. An example of this would be the presence of visible rugal folds above the hemidiaphragm. This, of course, is indicative of a hiatal hernia. This appearance may be visible on thoracic spine and chest films as well. Due to the common presence of swallowed air in the stomach, stomach dilatation often is visible. (See Figure 2.) A sign of stomach dilation is inferior displacement of the transverse colon. It may be displaced all the way into the pelvis. There are numerous causes of gastric dilation, such as obstruction (either stomach or duodenal), neurogenic, surgical and gastritis.

Occasionally, a mass can be seen deviating gas collections in the stomach. This is a difficult diagnosis to make accurately on plain films, due to the fact that the entire lumen of the stomach often is not outlined by the gas and the presence of swallowed liquids. Narrowing of the stomach lumen also might be visible. This often is due to scirrhous carcinoma or lymphoma. Again, this is difficult to see on a single plain film and usually requires multiple plain films over time, showing persistent narrowing.

Three or more air fluid levels in the small bowel are considered abnormal. (See Figure 3.) This is a result of diminished/lost bowel transport. So, an obstruction or a loss/diminished peristalsis would be the cause. Small-bowel loops should be less than 3 cm in diameter. Small-bowel distention is considered present if the loops are greater than 3 cm in diameter.Figure 4 demonstrates small-bowel distention. Note the central location of the gas and the visible valvulae conniventes, helping to identify this as the small bowel. Some of the possible causes of small-bowel distention are mechanical obstruction, volvulus, intussusception, hernias and postoperative.

Small-bowel dilation can uncommonly reach and exceed 5cm in diameter and be mistaken for large-intestine dilatation. Occasionally, an isolated loop of distended small bowel can be visualized. This is referred to as a sentinel loop and is due to an inflammatory process near the loop, such as acute pancreatitis. Within the small bowel, a linear collection of gas bubbles is known as the "string of pearls" sign and is an indicator of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The actual site of small-bowel obstruction may be visualized by an abrupt ending or tapering of a dilated loop of the small bowel. Often times, the actual site of obstruction is not known with just a plain-film study.

Any air fluid levels in the large bowel are considered abnormal. Just as described in the small bowel, this indicates a diminished/lost bowel transport, either due to obstruction or a loss/diminished peristalsis. Distention of the large bowel often is readily visualized on plain films. Distention generally is considered present if the diameter of the large bowel is greater than 5 cm. Figure 5 demonstrates dilatation of the transverse and descending colon. Masses and strictures also might be suspected on plain-film examination. Again, due to the variable appearance of large-intestine gas and the presence of fecal material, these are all difficult diagnoses to make accurately off plain-film studies. If masses or strictures are suspected, further imaging such as an abdominal CT may be warranted. Causes of large-bowel distention include mechanical obstruction, volvulus, adynamic ileus, toxic megacolon and ischemic colitis.

Gas outside the confines of the GI tract always is considered abnormal. There are several radiographic signs of free gas in the peritoneum, called pneumoperitoneum. The first is the double-wall sign or bas-relief sign. Both sides of the bowel wall are visible, due to intraluminal and extraluminal gas. The bowel wall will stand out and be readily visible when this happens. Figure 6 demonstrates this concept. The next sign of pneumoperitoneum is called the football sign and is typically only seen in children. It is a large collection of gas in the anterior peritoneum, vertically orientated in the shape of a football. Another sign of pneumoperitoneum is free air outlining the undersurface of the diaphragms. Gas commonly is seen below the left hemidiaphragm, but should clearly be associated with the gastric fundus or splenic flexure of the colon. The last sign of pneumoperitoneum is called the falciform ligament sign. The free gas in the abdomen will outline the water-dense falciform ligament, which can be seen in the right-upper medial abdomen.

One of the most common causes of pneumoperitoneum is recent surgery. Many of the other causes of pneumoperitoneum require immediate medical/surgical management. If an air fluid level can be localized outside of the GI tract, it is considered indicative of an abscess.

Branching gas patterns occasionally can be seen in the region of the liver. These may be due to gas in the biliary tree or in the portal venous system. If the branching gas pattern is seen toward the periphery of the liver, it is indicative of gas within the portal veins. This is an ominous sign and may indicate mesenteric infarction. If the branching gas pattern is seen toward the central region of the liver, it is indicative of gas within the biliary tree. This is not as ominous and may be associated with things such as gallstone ileus, duodenal ulcer perforation and postoperative status.

Sunday, May 11, 2014



It is Already revealed in The Holy Bible the Rise of God's Mockers:

What The Mockers say:

The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.(Psalms 14:1)

Psalms 1:1,4-6
How blessed is the person, who does not take the advice of the wicked, who does not stand on the path with sinners, and who does not sit in the seat of mockers..."The wicked are not so: but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away.Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous. For the LORD knoweth the way of the righteous: but the way of the ungodly shall perish.

The Hope of The God's Mockers

Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days Mockers, walking after their own lusts,And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished: But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. (2 Pet.3:3-7)


Then I looked, and I heard an eagle flying in midheaven.(Revelation 8:13)

The Eagle Nebula (catalogued as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611, and also known as the Star Queen Nebula) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape that is thought to resemble an eagle. It contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, including the famous "Pillars of Creation", photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

Arturus With HIS SON -This is The Birth or "Born" of New Star

Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons? (Job 38:32)

Arturus With HIS SON -This is The Birth of a New  Star "Son " is a product of Birth

-STAR BIRTHS are started when the interstellar matter in gas clouds, such as the Eagle Nebula shown here, compresses and fuses.

A star is born when atoms of light elements are squeezed under enough pressure for their nuclei to undergo fusion. All stars are the result of a balance of forces: the force of gravity compresses atoms in interstellar gas until the fusion reactions begin. And once the fusion reactions begin, they exert an outward pressure. As long as the inward force of gravity and the outward force generated by the fusion reactions are equal, the star remains stable.

Clouds of gas are common in our galaxy and in other galaxies like ours. These clouds are called nebulae. A typical nebula is many light-years across and contains enough mass to make several thousand stars the size of our sun. The majority of the gas in nebulae consists of molecules of hydrogen and helium--but most nebulae also contain atoms of other elements, as well as some surprisingly complex organic molecules. These heavier atoms are remnants of older stars, which have exploded in an event we call a supernova. The source of the organic molecules is still a mystery.

Psalms 33:6
The LORD merely spoke, and the heavens were created. He breathed the word, and all the stars were born.

Image: Hubble Space Telescope

STAR BIRTHS are started when the interstellar matter in gas clouds, such as the Eagle Nebula shown here, compresses and fuses.

Irregularities in the density of the gas causes a net gravitational force that pulls the gas molecules closer together. Some astronomers think that a gravitational or magnetic disturbance causes the nebula to collapse. As the gases collect, they lose potential energy, which results in an increase in temperature.

As the collapse continues, the temperature increases. The collapsing cloud separates into many smaller clouds, each of which may eventually become a star. The core of the cloud collapses faster than the outer parts, and the cloud begins to rotate faster and faster to conserve angular momentum. When the core reaches a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Kelvin, the molecules of hydrogen gas break apart into hydrogen atoms. Eventually the core reaches a temperature of 10,000 degrees Kelvin, and it begins to look like a star when fusion reactions begin. When it has collapsed to about 30 times the size of our sun, it becomes a protostar.

When the pressure and temperature in the core become great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, the outward pressure acts against the gravitational force. At this stage the core is about the size of our sun. The remaining dust envelope surrounding the star heats up and glows brightly in the infrared part of the spectrum. At this point the visible light from the new star cannot penetrate the envelope. Eventually, radiation pressure from the star blows away the envelope and the new star begins its evolution. The properties and lifetime of the new star depend on the amount of gas that remains trapped. A star like our sun has a lifetime of about 10 billion years and is just middle-aged, with another five billion years or so left.

Margaret M. Hanson, an assistant physics professor at the University of Cincinnati, gives this response:

Stars form from the gravitational collapse of large clouds of interstellar material. In fact, the space between stars is not empty; it is nearly empty, but not entirely. Interstellar matter, that found lying between the stars, is made from gas and dust. Granted, only about 10 percent of the mass in our Milky Way galaxy is made up of interstellar matter. But this material, as tenuous as it is, exerts a gravitational force, and as a result, it will begin to pull itself together.

Image: Hubble Space Telescope
GALACTIC NURSERY. Many stars are born in the beautiful Orion Nebula.

As this accretion continues, the gravity becomes increasingly strong because its strength rises as the mass increases and the distance of the individual atoms decreases. Eventually this interstellar matter entirely collapses in on itself. The material at the very center is compressed by the infalling material on the outside, pushing down to get to the center. And this compression heats up the center of the collapsing cloud.

At some point, the temperature gets so extremely high at the center, it triggers a fusion reaction. All the material that has fallen in then evolves into a hot, bright star. The star will continue to shine as long as there is hydrogen gas to fuse through nuclear reactions, and the gravitational pressure pushing inward keeps the atoms very hot and tightly packed at the center. For a more advanced, elaborate description, with wonderful pictures, see the Web site A Star Is Born, put together by Lee Carkner of the University of Colorado.



Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?.(Job 38:31)

We present a new census of the Orion Nebula Cluster over a large field of view ( 30' × 30'), significantly increasing the known population of stellar and substellar cluster members with precisely determined properties. We develop and exploit a technique to determine stellar effective temperatures from optical colors, nearly doubling the previously available number of objects with effective temperature determinations in this benchmark cluster. Our technique utilizes colors from deep photometry in the Iband and in two medium-band filters at λ ~ 753 and 770 nm, which accurately measure the depth of a molecular feature present in the spectra of cool stars. From these colors we can derive effective temperatures with a precision corresponding to better than one-half spectral subtype, and importantly this precision is independent of the extinction to the individual stars. Also, because this technique utilizes only photometry redward of 750 nm, the results are only mildly sensitive to optical veiling produced by accretion. Completing our census with previously available data, we place some 1750 sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and assign masses and ages down to 0.02 solar masses. At faint luminosities, we detect a large population of background sources which is easily separated in our photometry from the bona fide cluster members. The resulting initial mass function of the cluster has good completeness well into the substellar mass range, and we find that it declines steeply with decreasing mass. This suggests a deficiency of newly formed brown dwarfs in the cluster compared to the Galactic disk population.

A new study of NGC 2024 and the Orion Nebula Cluster by astronomers using data from Chandra and infrared telescopes, show stars on the outskirts of these clusters are older than those in the middle, which differs from predictions of the simplest ideas for how stars like our Sun should form in these clusters. According to the new results, the stars at the center of NGC 2024 were about 200,000 years old while those on the outskirts were about 1.5 million years in age. In Orion, the age spread went from 1.2 million years in the middle of the cluster to nearly 2 million years for the stars toward the edges.

Stars are often born in clusters, in giant clouds of gas and dust. Astronomers have studied twostar clusters using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and infrared telescopes and the results show that the simplest ideas for the birth of these clusters cannot work, as described in our latest press release.

The composite image above shows one of the clusters, NGC 2024, which is found in the center of the so-called Flame Nebula about 1,400 light years from Earth. In this image, X-rays from Chandra are seen as purple, while infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope are colored red, green, and blue.

A study of NGC 2024 and the Orion Nebula Cluster, another region where many stars are forming, suggest that the stars on the outskirts of these clusters are older than those in the central regions. This is different from what the simplest idea of star formation predicts, where stars are born first in the center of a collapsing cloud of gas and dust when the density is large enough.

The research team developed a two-step process to make this discovery. First, they used Chandra data on the brightness of the stars in X-rays to determine their masses. Next, they found out how bright these stars were in infrared light using data from Spitzer, the 2MASS telescope, and theUnited Kingdom Infrared Telescope. By combining this information with theoretical models, the ages of the stars throughout the two clusters could be estimated.

Explanations for the new findings can be grouped into three broad categories. The first is that star formation is continuing to occur in the inner regions. This could have happened because the gas in the outer regions of a star-forming cloud is thinner and more diffuse than in the inner regions. Over time, if the density falls below a threshold value where it can no longer collapse to form stars, star formation will cease in the outer regions, whereas stars will continue to form in the inner regions, leading to a concentration of younger stars there.

Another suggestion is that old stars have had more time to drift away from the center of the cluster, or be kicked outward by interactions with other stars. Finally, the observations could be explained if young stars are formed in massive filaments of gas that fall toward the center of the cluster.

The combination of X-rays from Chandra and infrared data is very powerful for studying populations of young stars in this way. With telescopes that detect visible light, many stars are obscured by dust and gas in these star-forming regions, as shown in this optical image of the region.



"For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night.(1 Thes.5:7)

But it is true that sleeping at night and waking in the day gives me more energy. Whenever I stay awake all night until morning, I feel dehydrated and beat - something I don't feel if I sleep at night (even for just a few hours).

Humans are by nature diurnal. The body has adapted to sunlight, and people need a certain amount of sunlight. Too little sunlight can apparently cause a slight depression - seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Human eyes are adapted to daylight, not the darkness of night.

However, some people adapt to being awake at night, and sleep during the day.

Possible the fatigue one feels in the morning corresponds with the time at which the brain would be in deep state of sleep. This would also correspond to about the time when one is dreaming. The brain needs to sleep.

Poor scheduling, combined with unhealthy attitudes about the need for sleep, can cause major problems for night workers. That’s because working at night runs counter to the body’s natural circadian rhythm, says Charmane Eastman, PhD, a physiological psychologist at Rush University in Chicago. The circadian clock is essentially a timer that lets various glands know when to release hormones and also controls mood, alertness, body temperature and other aspects of the body’s daily cycle.

Our bodies and brains evolved to relax and cool down after dark and to spring back into action come morning. People who work the night shift must combat their bodies’ natural rest period while trying to remain alert and high functioning. It doesn’t matter whether they get enough sleep during the daytime, she says. All the sleep in the world won’t make up for circadian misalignment.

That’s especially dangerous for people whose jobs require them to be on high alert and make split-second, life-or-death decisions during the night, such as medical personnel or police officers. It’s common for police departments, for example, to require rookies and lower-ranking officers to bear the brunt of night shifts. They’ll often work a few days during normal daytime hours, then either work an extra-long shift that carries on until the morning, or take a day off, rest, then work a full night shift. But that seesaw scheduling approach is a doubly bad idea, says John Violanti, PhD, an organizational psychologist who was a New York state trooper for 23 years. Not only are these highly stressful, performance-draining shifts being foisted upon the least experienced officers, but the young officers aren’t given time to adjust their sleep schedules for night work. Also, many officers seek night shifts to get overtime pay, he says. According to Vila’s research, roughly 40 percent of the nation’s 861,000 police officers work more than 12 hours a day — and a similar proportion suffer from a sleep disorder such as insomnia or excessive sleepiness.

Working against a person’s natural sleep cycle causes such sleep disorders, as well as fatigue. Fatigue, in turn, worsens moods, decreases cognitive abilities and reflexes, and makes people more vulnerable to disease, says Vila. That resulting crankiness and warped perspective can interfere with one’s ability to make sound decisions and manage people effectively, and can increase the frequency of negative encounters.

That’s not a recipe for good decisions, says Vila, especially when officers must make decisions about whether to use deadly force — often in ambiguous, fast-paced, high-risk situations. Neither is it safe for more routine activities, such as driving. "When you’re drowsy, local parts of the brain shut down for milliseconds or seconds at a time, then come back online," he says.

Night work and fatigue may also contribute to the risk of heart disease and cancer, according to research by Violanti, Vila and colleagues (Policing, Vol. 30, No. 2). Working with 98 Buffalo, N.Y., police officers, the researchers looked for metabolic syndrome — a combination of symptoms that contribute to poor heart health and diabetes, including large waist circumference, elevated triglyceride levels, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and high levels of glucose when not eating. They found that the officers who most frequently worked the 8 p.m.-to-4 a.m. shift had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome symptoms. Those who commonly worked that shift and also averaged fewer than six hours of sleep were four times more likely than other officers to have metabolic syndrome.

Vila and Violanti hope their findings will spur changes in shift scheduling, both for the public’s safety and the officers’.

Of course, police officers aren’t the only night-shift workers suffering from circadian misalignment. A number of studies have found that fatigue due to prolonged work hours or being called into work in the middle of the night can result in lapses in judgment and impaired motor skills among medical workers. For instance, a 2008 article in the American Journal of Surgery(Vol. 195, No. 2) reports that, when performing "surgery" on a virtual patient, well-rested surgeons were significantly smoother in their hand motions and made fewer errors than did their sleep-deprived counterparts.

Fatigue is also risky for the physicians themselves, other research has found. A 2005 report published in the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 352, No. 2) found that medical interns whose shifts lasted longer than 24 hours were more than twice as likely to have a car crash and five times as likely to have a driving near-miss after leaving work as interns who worked shorter shifts.

In fact, any worker who must drive while tired — whether it’s on the job or driving home after a night shift — is at risk. In 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health reported that car crashes are the top cause of occupational fatalities, accounting for 22 percent of work-related deaths between 1992 and 2001. In 7 percent of those cases, drowsiness or falling asleep while driving was cited as a primary factor in the crash. But other factors such as driver inattention, speeding and running off the road can also be influenced by fatigue, the institute found.

Another report from 2004 found that workers across a variety of occupations who worked 12-hour night shifts were more likely than their day-shift-working colleagues to experience physical fatigue, smoke and abuse alcohol.

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Sunlight Is Also Good For Eyes and Brain

Ecclesiastes 11:7
Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun:

Sunlight Is Also Good For Eyes and Brain:

Seeing the natural light of the sun helps the brain work better. No, not staring into the sun, but allowing the eyes to be exposed to natural outdoor light—contact lenses, eyeglasses, sunglasses and windows block the helpful sun rays. 

Of course, the sun is important because it offers us vitamin D for free, and is the major source of this important nutrient that has powerful effects throughout the body. Vitamin D allows one to more effectively use calcium, improves the immune system, helps prevents cancer, and is important for brain function. Yet, millions of people have insufficient levels of vitamin D, and rickets—a once common condition of brittle bones in children caused by vitamin D deficiency that was very rare—has made a big comeback. Much of the information about vitamin D can be found in my books and articles. 

In addition to the healthy affect on your skin, sunlight also provides another positive benefit. The human eye contains photosensitive cells in its retina, with connections directly to the pituitary gland in the brain. Stimulation of these important cells comes from sunlight, in particular, the blue unseen spectrum. A study by Dr.’s Turner and Mainster of the University of Kansas School of Medicine, published in the British Journal of Opthamology in 2008 states that, “these photoreceptors play a vital role in human physiology and health.” The effects are not only in the brain, but the whole body.

Photosensitive cells in the eye also directly affect the brain’s hypothalamus region, which controls our biological clock. This influences our circadian rhythm, not just important for jet lag but for normal sleep patterns, hormone regulation, increased reaction time, and behavior. Most cells in the body have an important cyclic pattern when working optimally, so potentially, just about any area of the body can falter without adequate sun stimulation. Turner and Mainster state that, “ensuing circadian disturbances can have significant physiological and psychological consequences.” This also includes “increasing risk of disease” as the authors state, and as numerous other studies show, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.

The hypothalamus also regulates the combined actions of the nervous and hormonal systems.

The brain’s pineal gland benefits directly from the sun stimulation. The pineal produces melatonin, an important hormone made during dark hours that protects our skin. In addition, melatonin is a powerful antioxidant for body-wide use, is important for proper sleep and intestinal function, and can help prevent depression. (Aspirin, however, reduces melatonin production.)

Among the specific affects of the eye’s photosensitive cells are helping you get out of bed each morning. The transition from sleep to waking up requires the effects of the body’s adrenal glands, influenced by the brain’s hypothalamus and pituitary. Exposure to morning sunlight also helps raise body temperature to normal (after a slight reduction during sleep), and numerous brain activities including increased alertness and better cognition—helping mood and vitality. These changes are often not experienced in many people until their morning coffee kicks in. Taking a peek outside at the dawn’s first sunlight is a habit worth implementing.

Aging reduces the ability to benefit from sun stimulation through the eyes, mostly due to eye-related disease development, especially problems such as glaucoma, and cataracts. Chronic inflammation and carbohydrate intolerance are two common problems associated with these and other eye illnesses. 

Up to 70 percent of those 65 years and older have chronic sleep disturbances, with potentially any of the other health problems mentioned above. Turner and Mainster conclude that, “Light deficiency, whether due to improper timing, suboptimal spectrum or insufficient intensity, may contribute to medical conditions commonly assumed to be age-related inevitabilities.”

Inside lighting may provide some eye stimulation if your light bulbs are the full spectrum type. But it won’t take the place of a regular habit of getting morning sun into unshielded eyes. This routine is even more important with age. 

The bottom line: The sun can help brain function, which can improve the nervous system, hormonal regulation, muscle function, immune health, and carries many other benefits.


Ano ang nangyayari sa tao sa Araw ng Kamatayan? Bago ang Muling pagkabuhay 

Ang sagot: 

Humihiwalay sa Katawan at kaluluwa ang espiritu.(San.2:26) nalalagot ang "Hininga"(espiritu ) ng isang namamatay.(Awit 146:4,Luc.23:46) 

Pagkatapus malagot ang hininga (espiritu) ng tao ito ay lumilipad o nagpapailanlang sa itaas. 

Sapagka't ang nangyayari sa mga anak ng mga tao ay nangyayari sa mga hayop: sa makatuwid baga'y isang bagay ang nangyari sa kanila: kung paanong namamatay ang hayop, gayon namamatay ang tao; oo, silang lahat ay may isang hininga; at ang tao ay wala ng karangalang higit sa hayop: sapagka't lahat ay walang kabuluhan.Lahat ay nagsisiyaon sa isang dako; lahat ay buhat sa alabok, at lahat ay nangauuwi sa alabok uli. Sinong nakakaalam ng espiritu ng tao kung napaiilanglang, at ng espiritu ng hayop kung napaiibaba sa lupa? (Ecle.3:19-21)

"For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told.The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.(Psalms 90:9-10)

Bumabalik sa Dios ang HININGA (espiritu) ng Taong Matuwid na siyang may bigay nito.(Ecle.12:7) at ang Katawan ay nabubulok at bumabalik sa lupa gaya ng una.(Job 17:13-16,Gen 3:19) at ang kaluluwa dumidikit sa alabok.(Awit 119:25)

"At ang alabok ay mauuwi sa lupa gaya ng una, at ang espiritu ay mababalik sa Dios na nagbigay sa kaniya."

Dito makikita natin na sa ating pagka-tao may sangkap tayo na hindi ito bumabalik sa lupa kundi ito ay BUMABALIK sa Dios sapagkat sa kanya ito nagmula ng kanya itong inihinga sa atin ng tayo ay nasa tiyan pa ng ating mga ina.(Ecle.11:5)ito ang ating espiritu 

Itong espiritu ng isang Taong Matuwid ay bumabalik ito sa Dios sa "KAMAY NG DIOS AT NI CRISTO"

"Sa iyong kamay ay inihabilin ko ang aking espiritu; iyong tinubos ako, Oh Panginoon, ikaw na Dios ng katotohanan.(Awit 31:5) 

Datapuwa't siya, palibhasa'y puspos ng Espiritu Santo ay tumitig na maigi sa langit, at nakita niya ang kaluwalhatian ng Dios, at si Jesus na nakatindig sa kanan ng Dios,At nagsabi, Narito, nakikita kong bukas ang mga langit, at ang Anak ng tao na nakatindig sa kanan ng Dios.Datapuwa't sila'y nagsigawan ng malakas na tinig, at nangagtakip ng kanilang mga tainga, at nangagkaisang siya'y dinaluhong;At siya'y kanilang itinapon sa labas ng bayan, at binato: at inilagay ng mga saksi ang kanilang mga damit sa mga paanan ng isang binata na nagngangalang Saulo.At kanilang pinagbatuhanan si Esteban, na tumatawag sa Panginoon at nagsasabi, Panginoong Jesus, tanggapin mo ang aking espiritu.At siya'y nanikluhod, at sumigaw ng malakas na tinig, Panginoon, huwag mong iparatang sa kanila ang kasalanang ito. At pagkasabi niya nito, ay nakatulog siya.(Mga Gawa 7:55-60) 

For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:(Phil.1:23)

We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.(2 Corintians 5:8)

Itong Kamay ng Dios at ni Kristo ito ang Juresdiction ng Dios. tinatawag rin itong Sinapupunan ni Abraham pag ang Tao namatay ang espiritu ng tao ay papailinlang sa taas at aakayin ito ng mga anghel na Tagasundo tungo sa sinapupunan ni Abraham sa Kaharian ng Dios.

"Mayroon ngang isang taong mayaman, at siya'y nagdaramit ng kulay ube at maselang lino, at sa araw-araw ay kumakain ng sagana:At isang pulubi na ang pangala'y Lazaro, lipos ng mga sugat, ay inilalagay sa kaniyang pintuan,At naghahangad na mapakain ng mga mumo na nangahuhulog mula sa dulang ng mayaman; oo, at lumapit pati ang mga aso at hinihimuran ang kaniyang mga sugat.At nangyari, na namatay ang pulubi at siya'y dinala ng mga anghel sa sinapupunan ni Abraham:(Luc.16-19-22) 

Doon sa Sinapupunan ni Abraham Aaliwin duon ang kanyang espiritu sapagkat nandoon sa daku na yaon ang mga espiritu ng mga matutuwid na ganap na pinasakdal na ang mga pangalan nakatala sa Langit.(Heb.12:1,23) na pinahinga ng Panginoon sa ilalim ng Dambana ng mga marter kay Kristo (Apoc.6:9-11)? 

"Datapuwa't sinabi ni Abraham, Anak, alalahanin mo na ikaw ay tumanggap ng iyong mabubuting bagay sa iyong pamumuhay, at si Lazaro sa gayon ding paraan ay masasamang bagay: datapuwa't ngayon, ay inaaliw siya rini, at ikaw ay nasa kahirapan.(Luc.16:19-22) 

At sapagitan ng dalawa daku ay may bangin na naghihiwalay na anopat ang mga naduon ay hindi makakaparitu o makatawid at nandito ay hindi makakaparuon. itong dalawang daku na ito ay Temporary place ito na paruruonan ng mga espiritu hanggang sa maganap ang pagkabuhay na mag uli ng  mga patay kung saan ibabalik ng Dios ang espiritu ng bawat tao sa kanilang mga katawan at silay  mabubuo uli at mangabubuhay (Ezek.37:1-14).ito ay magaganap sa unang pagkabuhay ng mga patay.(Apoc.20:1-6)

At bukod sa lahat ng ito, ay may isang malaking banging nakalagay sa pagitan namin at ninyo, upang ang mga magibig tumawid buhat dini hanggang sa inyo ay hindi maari, at gayon din walang makatawid mula diyan hanggang sa amin.(Luc.16:26) 

Ang kabilang daku naman ay ang daku na patutunguhan ng mga espiritung masasama? ito ang mga espiritu na hindi tinatanggap ng Dios sa kanyang KAMAY. 

Sila ay paruruon sa Daku na tinatawag na Hades o Kadiliman sa Labas ito ay bilanguan ng mga espitung masasama na kung saan duon ay gagapusin sila at sa daku naroon pagtangis at pangangalit ng mga ngipin. 

"Nang magkagayo'y sinabi ng hari sa mga naglilingkod, Gapusin ninyo ang mga paa at mga kamay niya, at itapon ninyo siya sa kadiliman sa labas; diyan na nga ang pagtangis at ang pagngangalit ng mga ngipin.(Mateo 22:13) na doon ay wala mang anomang ayos at ang liwananag duon ay gaya ng salimuot ng kadiliman.(Job 10:21-22) ang daku ng kahihiyan.(Awit 119:31,118)

Diyan na nga ang pagtangis, at ang pagngangalit ng mga ngipin, kung mangakita ninyo si Abraham, at si Isaac, at si Jacob, at ang lahat ng mga propeta sa kaharian ng Dios, at kayo'y palabasin.(Luc.13:28) 

Kilala rin  ito sa tawag na "Hades" isang daku ng Alab ng Init ng paghihirap ? 

"At nangyari, na namatay ang pulubi at siya'y dinala ng mga anghel sa sinapupunan ni Abraham: at namatay naman ang mayaman, at inilibing.

At sa Hades na nasa mga pagdurusa ay itiningin niya ang kaniyang mga mata, at natanaw sa malayo si Abraham, at si Lazaro ay nasa kaniyang sinapupunan.At siya'y sumigaw at sinabi, Amang Abraham, maawa ka sa akin, at suguin mo si Lazaro, upang itubog niya sa tubig ang dulo ng kaniyang daliri, at palamigin ang aking dila; sapagka't naghihirap ako sa alab na ito. Datapuwa't sinabi ni Abraham, Anak, alalahanin mo na ikaw ay tumanggap ng iyong mabubuting bagay sa iyong pamumuhay, at si Lazaro sa gayon ding paraan ay masasamang bagay: datapuwa't ngayon, ay inaaliw siya rini, at ikaw ay nasa kahirapan.(Luc.16:23-25) 

Ito rin ang bilangguan ng mga espiritu na pinaruonan ng Panginoon Jesus? 

"Sapagka't si Cristo man ay nagbata ring minsan dahil sa mga kasalanan, ang matuwid dahil sa mga di matuwid, upang tayo'y madala niya sa Dios; siyang pinatay sa laman, nguni't binuhay sa espiritu; Na iyan din ang kaniyang iniyaon at nangaral sa mga espiritung nasa bilangguan, Na nang unang panahon ay mga suwail, na ang pagpapahinuhod ng Dios, ay nanatili noong mga araw ni Noe, samantalang inihahanda ang daong, na sa loob nito'y kakaunti, sa makatuwid ay walong kaluluwa, ang nangaligtas sa pamamagitan ng tubig:(1Ped.3:18-20) 

Sa Dakung ito kinukulong ng Panginoon ang mga espiritu ng masasamang tao.ito rin ang naging kulungan ng mga anghel na hindi nag ingat ng kanilang sariling pamunuan kundi bagkus iniwan ang kanilang tahanan ay ginapus sila sa tanikala.(Judas 6) 



"And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,..."Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.(Leveticus 11:1,4)

The so-called Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus was first found in June 2012 in a patient from Saudi Arabia, who suffered from severe pneumonia. Since this time, more than 300 persons have developed an infection, of whom about a third died. The fact that the Arabian camel is the origin of the infectious disease has been confirmed recently. The transmission pathways of the viruses, however, have not been clear until now.

Viruses in humans and camels from one region are identical?

Virologists Norbert Nowotny and Jolanta Kolodziejek from the Institute of Virology are investigating the transmission pathways of the MERS coronavirus. They found that viruses from infected humans and Arabian camels from the same geographical region have nearly identical RNA sequences. "This indicates transmission between animals and man. The process is referred to as zoonosis. With this knowledge we can specifically react to the spread of the virus. Vaccinations of camels are currently being discussed. We will thus be able to halt the spread of the virus," said Nowotny.

Virus RNA differs from region to region

The scientists investigated nasal and conjunctival swabs, taken from 76 camels in Oman. In five camels they found the MERS coronavirus and compared its RNA with those of MERS coronavirus from Qatar and Egypt. The analysis showed that the viruses differ from region to region. "This means that there is no specific 'camel MERS coronavirus strain', but that one virus infects both, camels and humans," says study coordinator Norbert Nowotny.

Transmission pathway through nose and eyes

Virus levels were surprisingly high in the nasal mucosa and conjunctiva of camels. Therefore the scientists presume that the transmission pathway from animals to humans most likely occurs through these contact sites, especially through nasal discharge.

In man the virus causes severe pneumonia and renal failure while camels show no or very little symptoms (in some cases nasal discharge). So far all infections in humans have occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. However, some developed the disease after they returned to their native country, of whom eleven were from Europe. MERS coronavirus is also transmitted from one human to another, for instance in families, in the community, or through contact between patients and medical staff.