Key -Greek "Kies"as shutting a lock[Matthew 16:19]
The earliest known lock and key device was discovered in the ruins of Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria. Locks such as this were later developed into the Egyptian wooden pin lock, which consisted of a bolt, door fixture, and key. When the key was inserted, pins within the fixture were lifted out drilled holes within the bolt, allowing it to move. When the key was removed, the pins fell part-way into the bolt, preventing movement. The warded lockwas also present from antiquity and remains the most recognizable lock and key design in the Western world. The first all-metal lock appeared between the years 870 and 900, and are attributed to the English craftsmen. It is also said that the key was invented by Theodore of Samos in the 6th century BC.
Affluent Romans often kept their valuables in secure boxes within their households, and wore the keys as rings on their fingers. The practice had two benefits: It kept the key handy at all times, while signaling that the wearer was wealthy and important enough to have money and jewelry worth securing.
Money -Greek "denarion a denarius (or ten asses) -- pence, penny(-worth).[Matthew 22:19-21]
The earliest places of storage were thought to be money-boxes containments ( θΗΕΑΤΡΟΕ -) made similar to the construction of a bee-hive,as of the Mycenae tombs of 1550–1500 BC.
An early type of money were cattle, which were used as such from between 9000 to 6000 BCE onwards (Davies 1996 & 1999)Both the animal and the manure produced were valuable; animals are recorded as being used as payment as in Roman law where fines were paid in oxen and sheep (Rollin 1836) and within the Iliad and Odyssey, attesting to a value c.850–800 BCE (Evans & Schmalensee 2005).
It has long been assumed that metals, where available, were favored for use as proto-money over such commodities as cattle, cowry shells, or salt, because metals are at once durable, portable, and easily divisible.The use of gold as proto-money has been traced back to the fourth millennium BC when the Egyptians used gold bars of a set weight as a medium of exchange,as had been done earlier in Mesopotamia with silver bars.
The first mention of the use of money within the Bible is within the book "Genesis" in reference to criteria of the circumcision of a bought slave. Later, the Cave of Machpelah is purchased (withargentum) by Abraham, during a period dated as being the beginning of the twentieth century B.C.E., some-time recent to 1900 B.C.E. (after 1985). The currency was also in use amongst the Philistine people of the same time-period.
The shekel was an ancient unit used in Mesopotamia around 3000 BC to define both a specific weight of barley and equivalent amounts of materials such as silver, bronze and copper. The use of a single unit to define both mass and currency was a similar concept to the British pound, which was originally defined as a one pound mass of silver.
A description of how trade proceeded includes for sales the dividing (clipping) of an amount from a weight of something corresponding to the perceived value of the purchase. Of this the ancient Greek term was Κέρờς. From this one might understand the development of how coinage was imagined from the small metallic clippings (of silver) resulting from trade exchanges. The word used in Thucydides writings History for money is chremata, translated in some contexts as "goods" or "property", although with a wider ranging possible applicable usage, having a definite meaning "valuable things".
The first gold coins of the Grecian age were struck in Lydia at a time approximated to the year 700 B.C.E. The talent in use during the periods of Grecian history both before and during the time of the life of Homer, weighed between 8.42 and 8.75 grammes. (p. 3 – Seltman)
WinePresses [Matthew 21:33]
WinePresses [Matthew 21:33]
While the exact origins of winemaking (and, thus, of pressing grapes) are not known, most archaeologists believe that it originated somewhere in theTranscaucasia between the Black and Caspian Seas in the land that now includes the modern countries of Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan,Turkey and Iran. There are stories in the Imeretin Valley (in what is now Krasnodar Krai, Russia) dating to between 7000-5000 BC of early winemaking using hollowed out logs that they would fill with grapes, tread with their feet and then scoop the juice and crushed grape remains into jars to ferment. In the 17th century, French traveller Sir Jean Chardin would describe a similar practice still in use thousands of years later in Georgia.
The earliest evidence of deliberate winemaking is from excavation at sites like Areni-1 winery in what is now the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia. This site, dating back to around 4000 BC included a trough that measured about 3 by 3 1/2 feet and included a drain that went into a 2 feet long vat that could contain about 14-15 gallons (52-57 liters) of wine.The carbon dating of these sites (and earlier sites at Çatalhöyük and Neolithic B sites inJordan) are based on left over grape pips (seeds) and while they provide solid evidence of wine making, they don't necessarily provide evidence of how the wine was made and if the modern concept of pressing (i.e. extracting juice from the skins and separating it from the skins and seeds) was used.
Winemaking in ancient Egypt probably used people's feet for crushing and pressing the grapes, but tomb paintings excavated at Thebes showed that the ancient Egyptians developed some innovations to their wine presses-such as the use of long bars hanging over the treading basins and straps that the workers could hold onto while treading. Hieroglyph and paintings also showed the Egyptians by at least by the 18th Dynasty (c. 1550-c. 1292 BC) were also using a type of cloth "sack press" where grapes or skins left over from treading would be twisted and squeezed by a tourniquet to release the juice. A modified version of this sack press had the sack hung between two large poles with workers holding each pole. After the grapes were loaded into the sack, the workers would walk in opposite directions, squeezing the grapes in the bag and capturing the juice in a vat underneath the bag. This early wine press not only had the benefit of exerting more pressure on the skins and extracting more juice than treading but the cloth also acted an early form of filtering the wine.
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in grist mills, for grinding wheat or other grains.[Matthew 18:6]
Millstones come in pairs. The base or bedstone is stationary. Above the bedstone is the turning runner stone which actually does the grinding. The runner stone spins above the stationary bedstone creating the "scissoring" or grinding action of the stones. A runner stone is generally slightly concave, while the bedstone is slightly convex. This helps to channel the ground flour to the outer edges of the stones where it can be gathered up.
The runner stone is supported by a cross-shaped metal piece (rind or rynd) fixed to a "mace head" topping the main shaft or spindle leading to the driving mechanism of the mill (wind, water (including tide) or other means).