Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; [Job 38:4-6]

1. Three MAIN layers
a. Core: metallic, made of iron & nickel
b. Mantle: semi-solid rock
c. Crust: rigid, brittle, & thin layer of rock

2. Mantle
a. Lower mantle
i. a.k.a., mesosphere
ii. 2100 km thick
iii. Hot, semi-solid rock
iv. Consistency of hot asphalt

b. Upper mantle
i. Composed of two parts
1. Asthenosphere is semi-solid or 'plastic' and is ~700 km thick
2. Uppermost part of the mantle is solid and ~100 km thick

In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. 

Imaginary lines around the earth

the Antarctic Circle

an imaginary line around the Earth at the south pole

the Arctic Circle

an imaginary line around the Earth near the north pole

the date line

the international date line

the equator

an imaginary line that goes round the Earth and divides it into the northern and southern hemispheres


near the equator, or typical of conditions near the equator

the international date line

an imaginary line in the Pacific Ocean going from north to south that divides the world into two parts so that the date in the eastern halfis one day earlier than the date in the western half. The international date line is often simply called the date line.


the distance of a point on the Earth from the equator (=the imaginary line around the middle of the Earth), measured in degrees northor south


the distance east or west of the Greenwich meridian (=an imaginary line from the top of the Earth to the bottom), measured in degreesand minutes. Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator.


relating to or measured in longitude


one of the imaginary lines that goes around the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. These are used for measuring position,time etc.


an imaginary line around the Earth at a fixed distance from the equator


one of the two imaginary lines around the Earth on either side of the equator. The Tropic of Cancer is 23° 26’ north of it and the Tropicof Capricorn is 23° 26’ south of it.


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