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Wednesday, March 6, 2013

KOSHER


The origins of Jewish dietary or kosher laws (kashrut) have long been the subject of scholarly research and debate. Regardless of their origins, however, these age-old laws continue to have a significant impact on the way many observant Jews go about their daily lives. One of the more well-known restrictions is the injunction against mixing meat with dairy products. Not only do most Jews who observe kashrut avoid eating any meat and milk products together, many also wait a certain amount of time—30 minutes to a few hours—between eating meat and dairy. Everything the foods touch must be kept completely separate. A fully kosher household, for example, might have two or more different sets of flatware, tableware and cooking ware for making and serving meat dishes separate from dairy-based dishes. Some families even use two different dishwashers in order to maintain the separation. Outside the house, some Jews keep kosher by eating only at kosher restaurants while others have no problem eating non-kosher foods, so long as they maintain a kosher home.

But what are some of the other laws of kashrut, and how are they to be explained? Many of the dietary restrictions outlined in Deuteronomy and Leviticus prohibit the consumption of certain “unclean” animals that either don’t chew their cud or don’t have cloven hooves, such as pigs, camels and rabbits. Likewise, while the Hebrew Bible permits the eating of fish with fins and scales, shellfish like lobsters and crabs are an abomination. Why were such seemingly innocuous physiological traits so objectionable to the early Israelites?
One possible reason may be that the Israelites wanted some way to distinguish themselves from their non-Hebrew neighbors. Archaeological excavations of Iron Age I sites in Israel have shown that while pigs were a popular part of the Philistine diet, they were entirely absent from the herd-based economy of the Israelites. According to Ronald Hendel, such culinary distinctions soon became codified markers of cultural identity, whereby “the Philistine treat became an Israelite taboo.”* Perhaps similar efforts to affirm Israel’s uniqueness lay at the heart of other animal prohibitions.

But according to kashrut, even permissible animals have to be prepared in a certain way in order to remain kosher. As explained in Deuteronomy 12:23-24, for example, the blood of a slaughtered animal cannot be ingested, for “the blood is the life, and you shall not eat the life with the flesh.” The Israelites, like many ancient peoples, believed that an animal’s blood carried the soul of the animal and therefore should not be consumed.** Thus, before a piece of meat could be cooked, it had to be fully drained of its blood. Though not discussed in the Bible, traditional kosher methods for doing this include broiling the meat or a combination of soaking and salting.

Kosher law also forbids the consumption of wine that has been made, bottled or handled by non-Jews. Although this prohibition does not appear in the Hebrew Bible, it seems to have been followed as early as the second century A.D. In antiquity, wine was often used in libation rituals to various deities; for Jews this meant that any “pagan” wine could potentially have been made or used as a sacrifice to a foreign god. Thus, in order to avoid coming into contact with contaminated wine, Jews began making and bottling their own wine in accordance with Jewish law.


However, health is not the only reason for Jewish dietary laws. Many of the laws of kashrut have no known connection with health. To the best of our modern scientific knowledge, there is no reason why camel or rabbit meat (both treif) is any less healthy than cow or goat meat. In addition, some of the health benefits to be derived from kashrut were not made obsolete by the refrigerator. For example, there is some evidence that eating meat and dairy together interferes with digestion, and no modern food preparation technique reproduces the health benefit of the kosher law of eating them separately.

In recent years, several secular sources that have seriously looked into this matter have acknowledged that health does not explain these prohibitions. Some have suggested that the prohibitions are instead derived from environmental considerations. For example, a camel (which is not kosher) is more useful as a beast of burden than as a source of food. In the Middle Eastern climate, the pig consumes a quantity of food that is disproportional to its value as a food source others reasons some unclean animals like seaguls and owl there meat is not good for human consumption and God also not allowed to eat this by  means of preservation some animals are instinct species need to preserve and protect  . But again, these are not reasons that come from Jewish tradition.


Unclean foods include pork, kangaroo, rabbit, anything without a divided hoof and chews the cud (Leviticus 11:4-8, 26-28); fat (Leviticus 7:23); blood (Leviticus 7:26); kidneys; (Leviticus 3:4 ) bottom feeders such as catfish, oyster, shrimp, crab, lobster, shark, octopus, squid, clams, coral, and any fish that


doesn’t have scales and fins; any plant that grows in water, whether salt or fresh water, such as spirulina (algae), sea weed, kelp, and food additives such as carrageenan (Leviticus 11:10-12); birds that eat carrion such as the eagle, osprey, hawk, kite, vulture, raven, ostrich (including eggs), goat sucker, seagull, buzzard, swan, pelican, owl, carrion eagle, stork, heron, crane, hoopoe; bats (Leviticus 11:13-20); any insects that crawl, as opposed to hopping like locust and grasshopper, which makes nearly every insect off limits (Leviticus 11:23-25); rodents such as the mole, mouse, rat, and shrew; any animal torn, mangled or worried (painful death such as roadkill);  any cattle dying of disease (Leviticus 11:29-43); all reptiles including turtles, lizards, alligators, and snakes (Leviticus 11:4, 10, 29, 42); and any food that has touched anything unclean, such as a mouse chewed on it (Leviticus 7:23).


The health reasons for the distinctions between clean and unclean are fairly apparent. Avoiding unclean foods means avoiding harmful toxins and possible disease. For example, unhealthy toxins are stored in the fat and removed by the kidneys of every animal. Bottom feeders were created to remove toxins from the seas and their flesh is full of unhealthy toxins and metals. There are many, many reasons to avoid pork. Pigs will literally eat anything, and pork can contain up to 30 times more toxins than beef or venison.



Health:

Seafood is potent allergens in sensitised individuals and cause life-threatening adverse reactions that are usually life-long. Extreme sensitivity to minute quantities of fish is occasionally noted, and even exposure to fumes of fish being cooked is enough to precipitate reactions in certain individuals.

The Mollusc group includes three different classes of seafood with species such as Abalone, oysters, mussels, and squid (Calamari).

The second group, the Crustacean, includes the rock lobsters ("crayfish"), prawns, crabs and shrimps; and the third important group of seafood includes all the common edible fish, such as Hake, Cod, Snoek, etc. Cod is the most frequently reported cause of fish allergy, but reactions to other fish such as haddock, herring, sprat, halibut, plaice, mackerel, trout and salmon are well recognised. Very often patients are only allergic to certain species but are able to eat other seafood species without problems.

CLASSIFICATION OF SEAFOOD CAUSING ALLERGIES
GROUP CLASS SPECIES
Mollusca Gastropod Abalone, Snails (Escargot)
Bivalve (Shellfish) Mussels, Oysters, Clams, Scallop, Cockle
Cephalopod Squids (Calamari), Octopus, Cuttlefish
Anthropod Crustacean Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimp, Prawn, Crayfish (freshwater), Rock Lobster
Chordate Laminiformes Shark
Salmoniformes Salmon, Trout, Pike
Gadiformes Cod, Haddock, Hake
Perciformes Snapper, Mackerel, Tuna, Bonito, Grouper
Pleurenectiformes Sole, Flounder, Halibut, Plaice

(Degree of relation can be judged from distance apart)

Fish Allergens and cross-reactivity
Identified seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins, namely the parvalbumins in codfish and tropomyosin in crustaceans. In addition, there is strong immunological evidence that tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergen among crustaceans and molluscs.
In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel.
In 61 children with a history of fish allergy exposed to 2 – 8 species, 34 (56%) reacted to all, and 27 (44%) tolerated some types.
In a study of 6 adults from Denmark with a positive DBPCFC result to at least 1 of 3 fish (catfish, codfish, and snapper) and challenged to at least 2 types, 4 reacted to more than 1 species.
Shellfish cross-reactivity
In 16 atopic patients with shrimp allergy, greater than 80% had a positive SPT responses to crab, crayfish, and lobster. In 11 patients with immediate reactions to shrimp ingestion, the reaction rate to lobster, crab, and crayfish was 50% to 100% per species. At the other end of the spectrum is a report of several individuals with reactions to only particular species of shrimp.
Clinical characteristics of seafood allergy and classification of 10 seafood allergens by cluster analysis
A study in Japan investigated the clinical characteristics of children who showed
Sensitisation to any type of seafood and to classify the 10 seafood allergens based on IgE reactivities by a cluster analysis

Seafood allergens were classified into 4 groups by a cluster analysis:
1) Salmon, sardine, horse mackerel and mackerel
2) Cod and tuna
3) Octopus and squid, and
4) Crab and shrimp.

These findings corresponded to the biological classification and the classification by the reported common allergens among various types of seafood. Based on our findings, this classification is therefore considered to be useful when selecting allergens to screen for sensitisation to seafood.

It has been estimated that if someone is allergic to a fish they have a 50% chance of being allergic to at least one other fish, and if they are allergic to a shellfish they have a 75% chance of being allergic to another shellfish. There appears to be no cross-reaction between fish and shellfish, but concomitant allergy is possible, so all fish allergic patients should be tested for shellfish and vice versa.

Symptoms of Seafood Allergy
Urticaria (hives) and angioedema (swelling)
Contact Urticaria of hands from handling seafood
Asthma
Vomiting, looses stools and abdominal pains
Worsening Atopic Eczema
Anaphylaxis
Seafood-related, exercise-induced Anaphylaxis

Histamine Fish Poisoning (Scromboid poisoning)
The evaluation of a patient reacting to seafood can be difficult if the adverse reaction to particular seafood was caused by a non-allergic reaction.
In the USA seafood is the leading single-food vehicle causing outbreaks of food poisoning.
A major cause is the presence of a toxin in fish and shellfish, which produce symptoms similar to allergic reactions. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is a chemical intoxication that occurs after eating bacterially contaminated fish of the dark meat varieties. Spoiled fish of the families, Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (eg. tuna, mackerel, bonito), are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term, "scombroid fish poisoning", to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, bluefish, and sardines, when spoiled are also commonly implicated in histamine poisoning.

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